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Capsicum annuum


Capsicum annuum L.

Family Name: Solanaceae
Common Name: Chilli, Pepper, 辣椒


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Genus Epithet
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Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 0.2 m to 0.8 m


Native Distribution Mexico, South America
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Local Conservation Status Exotic

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Perennial herb up to 0.8m tall.
Foliage The leaves are oblong to egg- or lance-shaped (4-13 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide) and have a smooth leaf margin. Leaves may occur in alternate or opposite arrangement (1 or 2 leaves per point along the stem, respectively). 
Stems The stem is smooth and hairless.
Flowers White, 1 cm-wide flowers have purple anthers (the pollen-bearing tip of the male part). They are typically solitary, but occasional occurring in small clusters.
Fruits The fruit is classified as a berry and contains numerous, light yellow, disk- to kidney-shaped seeds. The chillis grow up to 15 cm long.
Cultivation It takes about 88-125 days from sowing to first harvest.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits, Edible Seeds)
Food (Herb and Spice : The peppers are rich in Vitamin A and C and are eaten fresh or cooked, lending a spicy taste to a variety of cuisines.)
Medicinal ( Capsaicin is the key compound in peppers which provides the spicy flavor and also has antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Capsaicin-containing creams can be applied topically to relieve pain from sore muscles, skin problems, shingles and rheumatism.)

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Container Planting
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden
Usage Hazard - Cons Irritant - Contact Allergy

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Bee))
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Potential Problems Chilli is prone to being attacked by aphids, spider mites and whiteflies. To learn more about how to manage these pests and care for Chilli, please click on this NParks' link: NParks' Gardening Resources.
Diseases Chilli is susceptible to cucumber mosaic virus which can be spread through aphid feeding.
Pest(s) Sucking Insects
Propagation Method Seed
Seed or Spore Germination Duration From 6
Seed or Spore Germination Duration To 21
Seed or Spore Germination Duration Unit Days


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Green
Young Flush Texture(s) Smooth
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate, Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Foliar Base Rounded / Obtuse
Typical Foliar Area Microphyll ( 2.25cm2 - 20.25 cm2 )

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Grouping Solitary
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Green, Orange, Purple, Red, Yellow / Golden
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Smooth, Waxy
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Non-Accessory Fruit
Mature Seed Colour(s) Cream / Off-White
Mature Seed Texture(s) Smooth
Seed Description Flat, disk-shaped.
Seed Quantity Per Fruit Numerous (>20)

Image Repository



Master ID 29473
Species ID 6629
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 04 October 2022.