Year of Publication 2021, Vol. 73 (1)

Date Published 25 May 2021
S.M.L. Lee, K.B.H. Er, A.H.B. Loo & W.F. Ang

Rediscovery of the Sculptured Toadstool, Amanita sculpta (Amanitaceae) in Singapore [Page 1 - 7]
Amanita sculpta Corner & Bas was first collected from Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, in 1939 and 1940 and then described as new in 1962. Since then, there have been no sightings or collections of this fungus in Singapore until recently when it was observed and recollected at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve after a hiatus of more than 80 years.
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I.M. Turner

Flora of Singapore precursors, 22: typifying Tongkat Ali and other notes on the Simaroubaceae in Singapore [Page 9 - 16]
The native Simaroubaceae of Singapore (four genera with one species each) are listed with full synonymy and typification. In the absence of any original material, a neotype is designated for Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Recent collections confirm Samadera indica Gaertn. as native in Singapore. In total 14 lectotypes and 3 neotypes are designated.
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I.M. Turner

Flora of Singapore precursors, 23: Notes on Ochnaceae in Singapore [Page 17 - 27]
The native Ochnaceae of Singapore (five species from three genera) are listed with synonymy and typification. An epitype is designated for Euthemis elegantissima Wall. to fix the application of the name in the sense of Brackenridgea hookeri (Planch.) A.Gray. In addition, 17 lectotypes (including 13 at the second step) and three neotypes (two at the second step) are designated here.
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Y.K.L. Teo, D.J. Middleton & I.M. Turner

Flora of Singapore precursors, 24: Notes on Theaceae in Singapore [Page 29 - 32]
Clarification of the nomenclature of names used for species of Theaceae in Singapore is provided. Lectotypes are designated for Gordonia multinervis King, Gordonia concentricicatrix Burkill, Gordonia excelsa Blume var. sincapuriana Dyer, Gordonia grandis King and Pyrenaria acuminata Planch. ex Choisy.
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M.A. Niissalo & L.M. Choo

Flora of Singapore precursors, 25: Taxonomic notes on new discoveries from Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, including two native genera newly recorded [Page 33 - 48]
As part of a project to sample tissue from all native vascular plants in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, we collected material from four species that have not been previously recorded
in Singapore. Of these, Nervilia singaporensis Niissalo has already been described as a new species, native to Singapore. Two species, Lepidogyne longifolia (Blume) Blume (Orchidaceae)
and Ptyssiglottis kunthiana (Wall. ex Nees) B.Hansen (Acanthaceae), which are reported here, belong to genera that have not previously been recorded in Singapore. Based on their collection
history in the region and their habitat in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, we consider them native to Singapore. The fourth new record, Plectocomiopsis cf. corneri Furtado (Arecaceae), also
reported here, is a new species record for Singapore, but based on the collection history of the species and its only known locality in Singapore, we consider it introduced. The nomenclature
and history of these species are discussed and we designate lectotypes for several names that are relevant to these species: Neottia longifolia Blume, Lepidogyne sceptrum Schltr., Polytrema
aequale Ridl., Polytrema aequale Ridl. var. minor Ridl. and Polytrema vulgare C.B.Clarke. We also designate a neotype for Lepidogyne minor Schltr.
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B.C. Ho, R.S.W. Yeo & L.M.J. Chen

A review of Desmodium s.l. (Leguminosae, subfamily Papilionoideae) in Singapore and nomenclature updates in the Malay Peninsula [Page 49 - 80]
All Desmodium Desv. species previously included in the most recent published checklist for Singapore have been recently transferred to Grona Lour. Desmodium scorpiurus (Sw.) Desv. and Pleurolobus gangeticus (L.) J.St.-Hil. are reported here as non-native new records for Singapore. An identification key to the species of the Desmodium group in Singapore is provided. Descriptions are provided for the new records based on the Singapore specimens. A lectotype is designated for Desmodium polycarpon var. albiflorum Ridl. which is reduced to synonymy of Grona heterocarpos (L.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi subsp. heterocarpos var. heterocarpos. Second step lectotypifications are designated here for Hedysarum heterophyllum Willd. and Hedysarum scorpiurus Sw. 30 species names in tribe Desmodieae for the Malay Peninsula with updated nomenclature is given.
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R.P.J. de Kok

A revision of Litsea (Lauraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore [Page 81 - 178]
A revision of all species of the genus Litsea Lam. (Lauraceae) occurring in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore is presented along with a summary of taxonomic history, notable features of morphology, and a key to species. A description, distribution map, and a proposed conservation assessment is presented for each species, together with notes on ecology and ethnobotany. Through this revision, 37 distinct species are recognised. Forty-three names are lectotypified (Cylicodaphne myristicifolia (Wall. ex Nees) Meisn. var. acutata Meisn., Lepidadenia magnifica Miq., Litsea accedens (Blume) Boerl., L. acrantha Ridl., L. amara Blume, L. angulata Blume, L. artocarpifolia Gamble, L. brachystachya (Blume) Boerl., L. brideliifolia Hayata, L. cinerascens Ridl., L. costalis (Nees) Kosterm., L. curtisii Gamble, L. elliptica Blume, L. erectinervia Kosterm., L. fenestrata Gamble, L. ferruginea (Blume) Blume, L. glabrifolia Ridl., L. glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob., L. helferi Hook.f. var. ovata Gamble, L. hirsutissima Gamble var. geniculata Gamble, L. kunstleri Gamble, L. lancifolia (Roxb. ex Nees) Fern.-Vill. var. rufa Ridl., L. machilifolia Gamble var. montana Ridl., L. magnifica (Miq.) Fern.-Vill. var. pahangensis Ridl., L. maingayi Hook.f., L. monopetala (Roxb.) Pers., L. noronhae Blume, L. noronhae Blume var. hexandra Gamble, L. patellaris Gamble, L. penangiana Hook.f., L. petiolata Hook.f., L. quercina Gamble, L. robusta Blume, L. scortechinii Gamble, L. sessiliflora Hook.f., L. spathacea Gamble, L. spathacea Gamble var. tomentosa Gamble, L. sphaerocarpa Blume, L. terminalis Ridl., L. ujongensis Gamble, L. ujongensis Gamble var. nervosa Gamble, Tetranthera angusta Nees and T. cordifolia Meisn.), while three additional names are lectotypified in a second step (L. lancifolia (Roxb. ex Nees) Fern.-Vill., L. monticola Gamble and L. trunciflora Gamble) and eleven names are placed into synonymy for the first time (Cylicodaphne myristicifolia (Wall. ex Nees) Meisn. var. acutata Meisn., L. cinerascens Ridl., L. firma (Blume) Hook.f., L. foxiana Gamble, L. hirsutior Kosterm., L. magnifica (Miq.) Fern.-Vill., L. paludosa Kosterm., L. persella Ridl., L. rufofusca Kosterm., L. spathacea Gamble, and L. umbellata (Lour.) Merr. var. fuscotomentosa (Meisn.) I.M.Turner). Most species have a global conservation assessment of Least Concern, while a few species are either Vulnerable (L. acrantha and L. fenestrata), Endangered (L. claviflora Gamble, L. curtisii and L. penangiana), Critically Endangered (L. ridleyi Gamble) and one species considered to be Data Deficient (L. glabrifolia Ridl.).
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J. Leong-Škorničková, A. Lamb, J. Linton & L. Gokusing

Six new Orchidantha species (Lowiaceae) from Borneo [Page 179 - 202]
Six new Orchidantha species (Lowiaceae) from Borneo, O. gigantea Škorničk. & A.Lamb, O. ismailii Škorničk. & A.Lamb, O. jiewhoei Škorničk. & A.Lamb, O. lutescens Škorničk. & A.Lamb, O. nilusii Škorničk. & A.Lamb and O. ultramafica Škorničk. & A.Lamb are described here. This brings the total number of species in the family to 34 of which 17 are endemic to Borneo. Detailed descriptions, colour plates, preliminary IUCN conservation assessments and a key to all Bornean Orchidantha species are provided.
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S. Kaitongsuk, P. Triboun, S. Suddee, P. Ue-Aree & S. Sungkaew

Paraboea khaoyaica (Gesneriaceae), a new species from Thailand [Page 203 - 207]
Paraboea khaoyaica Kaitongsuk, Triboun & Sungkaew, a new species from Southeastern Thailand, is described and illustrated and its conservation status is assessed. The species is currently only known from the type locality.
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S. Karuppusamy & V. Ravichandran

Drimia jeevae (Asparagaceae), a new species from southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India [Page 209 - 214]
Drimia jeevae Karupp. & V.Ravich. (Asparagaceae) is described as a new species from the Alamparai Hills, Kanyakumari District, which is a part of the southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. A detailed description, illustration, phenology, and relevant ecological notes are provided, along with a comparison to the morphologically similar species Drimia razii Ansari and Drimia wightii Lakshmin.
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R. Gogoi, B.B.T. Tham, N. Sherpa, J. Dihingia & S. Borah

Clarification of the taxonomic identity, typification and nomenclature of Impatiens benthamii (Balsaminaceae) [Page 215 - 220]
Impatiens benthamii Steenis (Balsaminaceae) is re-collected from the type locality, Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India, almost 60 years since it was last collected. The history and nomenclatural complexity of this little-known endemic species is discussed. A clarification of the distributional range of the species is given due to previous erroneous reports. To facilitate its proper identification, a detailed description based on live materials and colour photographs is provided. The characters of Impatiens benthamii are compared to those of closely related species. A lectotype is designated.
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E.M. Gardner

Colonial botany and the shifting identity of Balanostreblus ilicifolius Kurz (Moraceae) [Page 221 - 235]
The protologue of Balanostreblus ilicifolius Kurz included the citation of specimens from Bangladesh and Myanmar of a plant now called Taxotrophis ilicifolia (Kurz) S.Vidal. However, the description in the protologue and the accompanying illustration were based largely on the Neotropical Sorocea guilleminiana Gaudich., which was cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta and has similar vegetative characters. This paper seeks to resolve a century of confusion over the identity of Balanostreblus ilicifolius and reviews its history in light of historical correspondence relating to its identity and the trans-continental exchange of plants under British colonialism. The paper concludes that a previous attempt to typify Balanostreblus ilicifolius with an uncited cultivated specimen of Sorocea guilleminiana should be superseded with material from Myanmar cited in the protologue. A lectotype is designated, fixing the application of the name, which can now serve as the basionym of Taxotrophis ilicifolia.
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Year of Publication: 2020, Vol. 72 (2)

Date Published 15 December 2020
W.J.J.O. de Wilde & B.E.E. Duyfjes

Flora of Singapore precursors, 18: Change of rank for two species in Polygalaceae and Cornaceae [Page 133 - Page 134]


Alangium hirsutum Bloemb. (Cornaceae) and Xanthophyllum amoenum Chodat (Polygalaceae) are reduced to varieties of Alangium longiflorum Merr. and Xanthophyllum stipitatum A.W.Benn. respectively.

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P.R. Gajurel & H.K. Lua

Flora of Singapore precursors, 20: Notes on the genus Piper (Piperaceae) from Singapore [Page 135 - Page 141]


Nomenclatural notes on six species of Piper occurring in Singapore are provided. Nine names are typified. Additional relevant information on the species is also included.

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P.C. van Welzen, D.J. Middleton & S. Lindsay

Flora of Singapore precursors, 21: New records of Euphorbiaceae for Singapore [Page 143 - Page 158]


Seven species of Euphorbiaceae are newly recorded for Singapore of which five are presumed native, one is cryptogenic and one is naturalised. One name is lectotypified. The conservation status of the native species is discussed.
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S.K. Ganesan, R.C.J. Lim, P.K.F. Leong & X.Y. Ng

Microcos antidesmifolia (Malvaceae-Grewioideae), a poorly known species in Singapore [Page 159 - Page 164]


A poorly known species in Singapore, Microcos antidesmifolia (King) Burret, is described and illustrated for the first time. In Singapore, it is known from the type variety, Microcos antidesmifolia (King) Burret var. . Notes on distribution, ecology and conservation status are given. This species is assessed as Critically Endangered for Singapore. A key is given for the five Microcos L. species in Singapore.

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P.J. Chan, Y.Y. Ting, N.E. Rahman, R. Chong, W.N. Lam & K.Y. Chong

Notes on Acer laurinum (Sapindaceae) in freshwater swamp forest in Singapore [Page 165 - Page 172]


Acer laurinum Hassk. was recently recorded as both a new species and genus  for Singapore from the Nee Soon swamp forest in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, but little is known about its biology and ecology. Here, the species is described and notes on its distribution, ecology and proposed conservation status in Singapore are given.

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E.M. Gardner & N.J.C. Zerega

Taxonomic updates to Artocarpus subgenus Pseudojaca (Moraceae), with a particular focus on the taxa in Singapore [Page 173 - Page 213]


The breadfruit genus Artocarpus J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Moraceae) has 16 species in Singapore, 14 of them native. The following taxonomic changes in Artocarpus subgenus Pseudojaca Trécul, based on recent phylogenetic work, are presented with diagnostic characters. Artocarpus griffithii (King) Merr. is reinstated as distinct from A. lamellosus Blanco (which is called A. nitidus Trécul in the earlier literature), also requiring the reinstatement of the following taxa not found in Singapore: A. borneensis (Merr.) F.M.Jarrett, A. humilis Becc., A. vrieseanus Miq. var. subsessilis F.M.Jarrett and A. xanthocarpus Merr. Artocarpus dadah Miq. is reinstated as distinct from A. lacucha Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham., thereby necessitating the reinstatement of the following taxa not found in Singapore: A. fretessii Teijsm. & Binn. ex Hassk., A. ovatus Blanco, and A. vrieseanus var. refractus (Becc.) F.M.Jarrett. Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trécul is restricted to the type subspecies, and A. zeylanicus (F.M.Jarrett) E.M.Gardner & Zerega, formerly a subspecies, is elevated to species level. Thirteen lectotypes and two neotypes are designated.

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L.G. Saw

A new species of Polyosma Blume (Escalloniaceae) and notes on a revision of the genus in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore [Page 215 - Page 231]


Twelve species of Polyosma are recognised for Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, of which only three species are in Singapore. One new species is described, the taxonomy of two species is clarified with five names synonymised, and all names are typified. Provisional conservation assessments are provided for each species.
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L.M. Choo & K.M. Ngo

A revision of the genus Sindora (Fabaceae, Detarioideae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore [Page 233 - Page 251]


Sindora Miq. is a genus of large legume trees found mainly in tropical and subtropical forests from southern China, continental Southeast Asia, and West and Central Malesia. A revision of Sindora in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore is presented with updated descriptions and distributions. The data are derived from a comprehensive study of herbarium specimens from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, together with field observations of individuals growing in natural populations in Singapore. Five species are recorded from Peninsular Malaysia. Four species are recorded from Singapore, all of which also occur in Peninsular Malaysia. Sindora velutina Baker, only recently recorded for Singapore but at the same time noted to be presumed nationally extinct, is reported here as rediscovered. Lectotypes of Sindora siamensis Teijsm. ex Miq. and Sindora velutina are designated here. A second step lectotype is designated for Sindora wallichii Benth. New global-level conservation assessments are proposed for Sindora echinocalyx Prain, Sindora siamensis and Sindora wallichii Benth., while provisional national-level conservation assessments for each species are also reported. Four species of Sindora in Peninsular Malaysia are reported as Least Concern both globally and within Peninsular Malaysia; Sindora siamensis is reported as Least Concern globally but is presumed Nationally Extinct in Peninsular Malaysia. In Singapore all four species of Sindora are reported as Critically Endangered.

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E.S. Fernando, D.N. Celadiña, D.N. Tandang, E.P. Lillo, & M.O. Quimado

Brackenridgea (Ochnaceae) in the Philippines, with notes on foliar nickel hyperaccumulation in the genus [Page 255 - Page 273]


The genus Brackenridgea (Ochnaceae) in the Philippines is revised. Recent field surveys have provided new locality records and ecological and morphological data to distinguish the three Philippine taxa; all are recognised at species level. The new combination, Brackenridgea mindanaensis (Merr.) Fernando is made. Two names are lectotypified and a second step neotypification is made for one name. Foliar nickel hyperaccumulation is confirmed for all Philippine species.

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H.P. Wilson, T. Jimbo, A. Hagwood & M. Hughes

Three new species of Begonia sect. Petermannia (Begoniaceae) from Sandaun Province, Papua New Guinea [Page 275 - Page 284]


Three new species from Begonia sect. Petermannia (Klotzsch) A.DC., Begonia fractalifolia H.P.Wilson & Jimbo, Begonia aikrono H.P.Wilson & Jimbo, and Begonia sandaunensis H.P.Wilson & Jimbo, are described from Sandaun Province in Papua New Guinea. Begonia fractalifolia is known from the type locality and a site c.130 km further south, whereas the other two species are only known from their type localities. The IUCN conservation status of each is assessed as Data Deficient.
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P. Panyadee, W. Tanming & C. Maknoi

Plants without borders: new records of two presumed Thai endemic Gesneriaceae in Laos [Page 285 - Page 290]


Botanical expeditions in Laos through a collaboration between Thailand (Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden) and Laos (Pha Tad Ke Botanic Garden) to document plant diversity and collect plants for ex situ conservation, led to the discovery of two species of Gesneriaceae previously believed to be endemic to Thailand: Damrongia trisepala (Barnett) D.J.Middleton & A.Weber and Didymocarpus formosus Nangngam & D.J.Middleton. Information on these species is provided.
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M. Sabu & V.S. Hareesh

Hedychium mechukanum (Zingiberaceae), a new species from the eastern Himalayas, India [Page 291 - Page 297]


The new species Hedychium mechukanum M.Sabu & Hareesh is described from Arunachal Pradesh, India. It shows similarities to Hedychium urophyllum G.Lodd., H. coronarium J.Koenig, H. flavum Roxb. and H. chrysoleucum Hook. from Northeast India, and to H. qingchengense Z.Y.Zhu from China. A detailed description along with colour photographs are provided for ease of identification. 
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K.A. Kron, P.W. Fritsch, L. Lu & W.S. Judd

New combinations and new and resurrected names in Gaultheria (Ericaceae) [Page 299 - Page 317]


The Wintergreen Group clade of the tribe Gaultherieae (Ericaceae: subfam. Vaccinioideae) comprises the genera Diplycosia Blume, Gaultheria L., and Tepuia Camp. Phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that Gaultheria is not monophyletic, with Diplycosia and Tepuia nested within it. On morphological grounds, the recognition of a single genus in the Wintergreen Group to establish monophyly as the basis for the classification is favoured over subdivision into smaller genera. Here, we make the taxonomic changes necessary for recognising Gaultheria as the sole genus constituting the Wintergreen Group. We make 126 new combinations, erect 17 new names, and resurrect four species names in Gaultheria for all species, varieties, and forms heretofore recognised in the literature under Diplycosia or Tepuia. Additionally we make two new combinations in Gaultheria at the sectional level to accommodate the species from Diplycosia and Tepuia, and provide lectotypes for Pernettyopsis King & Gamble and Gaultheria [unranked] Amphicalyx Endl.
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Year of Publication 2020, Vol. 72 (1)

Date Published 19 June 2020
M.A. Niissalo, L.M. Choo, H. Kurzweil, T.W. Yam & G.S. Khew

A new species of Nervilia (Orchidaceae) from Singapore [Page 1 - Page 14]


The only species of Nervilia Comm. ex Gaudich. included in national checklists and redlists of the Singapore flora is Nervilia punctata (Blume) Makino. This species is treated as presumed nationally extinct. There are three historic collections from Singapore, all collected by H.N. Ridley during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, the identity of these specimens has recently been cast into doubt as the Nervilia adolphi/punctata species alliance has become the subject of taxonomic scrutiny. The lack of visible characters on the existing specimens has so far made it impossible to pinpoint the correct identity of the Singapore specimens. We recently discovered a small population of Nervilia in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve in Singapore, which in our opinion is the same taxon that was collected by Ridley. The plants do not agree with other species in the Nervilia adolphi/punctata species alliance and the taxon is here described as a new species based on the clinandrial tissue surrounding the anther cap as well as the narrow oblong and truncate labellum with curled sides. We currently consider the species to be endemic to Singapore.

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M.A. Niissalo & J. Leong-Škorničková

Dracaena breviflora (Asparagaceae): an unusual species newly recorded in Singapore [Page 15 - Page 21]


Dracaena breviflora Ridl. (Asparagaceae) is newly recorded here for Singapore. A description and colour plates of this unusual species are included. Provisional conservation assessments of Endangered globally and Critically Endangered in Singapore are proposed.

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A.R. Rafidah, A.R. Ummul-Nazrah & W.P. Wan Syafiq

Sohmaea teres (Fabaceae), a new record for Peninsular Malaysia [Page 23 - Page 28]


Sohmaea teres (Wall. ex Benth.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, a new record from Peninsular Malaysia, is described in detail with colour photographs. A key to the two Sohmaea H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi species in Peninsular Malaysia is also provided. The provisional conservation status of this species for Peninsular Malaysia is Critically Endangered because it is found only at a single locality (Gunung Pulai, Kedah) which has been proposed for quarrying.
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I.M. Turner

A new synonym of Lophopyxis maingayi (Lophopyxidaceae) [Page 29 - Page 32]


Combretum perakense M.Gangop. & Chakrab., described from specimens collected in Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, is here reduced to a synonym of Lophopyxis maingay Hook.f. (Lophopyxidaceae). Lectotypes are designated for three other synonyms of Lophopyxis maingayi.

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M. Hughes, D. Girmansyah, A. Randi & H.N.R. Ningsih

Eleven new records, three new species and an updated checklist of Begonia from Kalimantan, Indonesia [Page 33 - Page 58]


The Begonia flora of Kalimantan is very poorly known, in marked contrast to that of Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak. Here we publish eleven new records and three new species (B. bawangensis Girm., Randi & M.Hughes, B. pendulina Girm. & M.Hughes and B. recurvata Girm. & M.Hughes, all in Begonia sect. Petermannia) (Klotzsch) A.DC. for Kalimantan. Provisional conservation assessments according to IUCN criteria are provided for the new species.
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I.A. Savinov

Four new records of Celastraceae for Brunei [Page 59 - Page 63]


Four species belonging to three genera in the Celastraceae are reported here as new records for Brunei, Celastrus monospermus Roxb., Euonymus javanicus Blume, Salacia korthalsiana Miq. and S.maingayi M.A.Lawson. One species, Celastrus monospermus, is also the first record for Malesia. These species are discussed and details of the herbarium specimens in BRUN are provided.
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W.L. Ng, G. Huang, W. Wu, Q. Zhou, Y. Liu & R. Zhou

Molecular confirmation of natural hybridisation between Melastoma sanguineum and M. malabathricum (Melastomataceae) [Page 65 - Page 75]


The genus Melastoma (Melastomataceae) is known to have undergone rapid species radiation, and natural hybridisation has been observed to happen whenever two or more species co-occur. Many cases of natural hybridisation have been confirmed between Melastoma species in China, but only a few cases have been confirmed in Southeast Asia, which is where the majority of the diversity of the genus occurs, although hybrids have been suspected based on morphological intermediacy. Recently in Peninsular Malaysia, we observed co-occurring populations of Melastoma sanguineum Sims and M. malabathricum L., two of the most widely distributed species of Melastoma L. Many individuals with intermediate morphologies were also at the site. In this study, we used DNA sequence data of three partial nuclear genes and one chloroplast locus to determine the identity of the intermediate individuals. We found that the chloroplast haplotypes could be grouped by similarity to clusters corresponding to the two species, and the same individuals shared nuclear alleles from both clusters. Our findings revealed that, (1) the morphologically intermediate individuals are indeed hybrids of Melastoma sanguineum and M. malabathricum; (2) both F1 hybrids and further hybrid generations are present; (3) both species can act as pollen donor.
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J.D. Mood, M. Ardiyani, J.F. Veldkamp, T. Mandáková, L.M. Prince & H.J. de Boer

Nomenclatural changes in Zingiberaceae: Haplochorema is reduced to Boesenbergia [Page 77 - Page 95]


The history of Haplochorema K.Schum. (Zingiberaceae) is reviewed, its morphology is compared to Boesenbergia Kuntze and the molecular phylogenetic position is shown in relation to other Zingiberaceae. Based on a comparative analysis of molecular and morphological data, Haplochorema is reduced to Boesenbergia with eight new combinations. A lectotype for Boesenbergia loerzingii (Valeton) K.Larsen ex M.F.Newman, Lhuillier & A.D.Poulsen is designated here.

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H. Kurzweil, P. Ormerod & A. Schuiteman

The long-lost Myanmar endemic Arundina subsessilis (Orchidaceae) found congeneric with the recently described Chinese Thuniopsis cleistogama [Page 97 - Page 107]


Morphological evidence indicates that the long-lost Arundina subsessilis Rolfe from Upper Myanmar is correctly placed in the genus Thuniopsis L.Li, D.P.Ye & Shi J.Li. The new combination Thuniopsis subsessilis (Rolfe) Ormerod, Kurzweil & Schuit. is made. As this is also the only species in Myanmar that had been referred to the genus Dilochia Lindl., this means that Dilochia is not found in Myanmar. In addition, two specimens which were recently reported in central and western Myanmar are also referred to the genus Thuniopsis.
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M. Taram, D. Borah, N. Krishna, A.K. Pradeep, A. Amrutha & M. Hughes

Begonia oyuniae (Begonia sect. Monophyllon, Begoniaceae), a remarkable new species from Northeast India [Page 109 - Page 115]


The new species Begonia oyuniae M.Taram & N.Krishna is described from Arunachal Pradesh. It belongs to Begonia sect. Monophyllon A.DC., which is a new sectional record for India. Begonia oyuniae shares the ability to produce plantlets at the leaf tip with B. vagans Craib (Begonia sect. Alicida C.B.Clarke) and B. elisabethae Kiew (Begonia sect. Parvibegonia A.DC.), but differs from the former in having glabrous tepals (versus densely glandular hairy) and 2-locular ovaries (versus 3-locular), and from the latter in having an asymmetric androecium (not globose). It differs from the two other species in Begonia sect. Monophyllon in having leaves which have sinuate to lobed margins (not entire), and which produce plantlets around the margin.
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V. Ravichandran, M. Murugesan & C. Murugan

Eugenia bolampattiana (Myrtaceae), a new species from the Bolampatty Hills of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India [Page 117 - Page 123]


Eugenia bolampattiana V.Ravich., Murug. & Murugan (Myrtaceae) is described as a new species from the Bolampatty Hills, Coimbatore District, which is a part of the
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. A detailed description, illustration, colour photographs, phenology, and relevant ecological notes are provided, along with a comparison of the morphologically similar species Eugenia mooniana Wight and Eugenia kalamii Shareef et al. 
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M. Taram & D. Borah

Rhynchotechum nirijuliense (Gesneriaceae), a new species from Northeast India [Page 125 - Page 129]


A new species of Rhynchotechum (Gesneriaceae), Rhynchotechum nirijuliense Taram & D.Borah, is described from Nirijuli of Papum Pare district in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. The new species is compared to Rhynchotechum ellipticum and R. calycinum. A detailed description, colour photographs and notes on the distribution and ecology of the new species are provided.
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P. Baas & T. Fujii

Earlier accounts of driftwood of Alstonia spatulata (Apocynaceae) [Page 131 - Page 132]


We report on records from the 1930s by R. Kanehira of the ultralight driftwood from root- and basalmost stemwood of Alstonia spatulata Blume which were overlooked in Baas et al. (2019).
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Year of Publication: 2019, Vol. 71 (2)

Date Published 16 December 2019
D.J. Middleton, K. Armstrong, Y. Baba, H. Balslev, K. Chayamarit, R.C.K. Chung, B.J. Conn, E.S. Fernando, K. Fujikawa, R. Kiew, H.T. Luu, Mu Mu Aung, M.F. Newman, S. Tagane, N. Tanaka, D.C. Thomas, T.B. Tran, T.M.A. Utteridge, P.C. van Welzen, D. Widyatmoko, T. Yahara & K.M. Wong

Progress on Southeast Asia’s Flora projects [Page 267 - Page 319]
Southeast Asia (Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Timor Leste, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea) is a region of high plant diversity with an estimated 50,000 flowering plant species. Estimates of plant diversity in the region continue to grow as large numbers of new species are described even though there have been suggestions that there are few new species to be found in some parts of Southeast Asia. It is likely that most estimates of species numbers in the countries of Southeast Asia are too low due to the lack of taxonomic work on groups which have many locally endemic species. Differing collecting densities across the region can profoundly affect our understanding of plant diversity and lead to large underestimates of species diversity in poorly collected countries and regions. Progress on each of the major Flora projects in Southeast Asia, Flora of Thailand, the Flora of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam/Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêtnam, Flora Malesiana, Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Flora of Singapore and Flora of Vietnam, along with floristic research in Myanmar, the only country not covered by at least one of these Flora projects, is discussed. In addition to the formal Flora projects, there is much floristic activity occurring in the countries otherwise covered by transnational Floras. 
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Z. Dennehy & R. Cámara-Leret

Quantitative ethnobotany of palms (Arecaceae) in New Guinea [Page 321 - Page 364]
We conducted a bibliographic review of palm use in New Guinea to quantify palm-utilisation patterns across the region’s habitats, countries, and indigenous groups, and to identify the most useful species. We reviewed 187 bibliographic references and 140 herbarium specimens, spanning the years 1885–2018. We found 1178 use-reports and 894 palm-uses for 119 palm species. Lowland tropical rainforest is the best-studied habitat, and Indonesian New Guinea and Papua New Guinea have each received similar research effort. Most palms are used for Utensils and tools, Construction and Human food, and the stem, leaf and fruit are the most utilised palm parts. Only 5% of New Guinea’s indigenous groups have been studied, and <10 use-reports are recorded for most of the indigenous groups studied. Important species included Actinorhytis calapparia H.Wendl. & Drude, Adonidia maturbongsii W.J.Baker & Heatubun, Areca catechu L., Areca macrocalyx Zipp. ex Blume, and Metroxylon sagu Rottb. Overall, our study highlights the importance of palms for fulfilling subsistence needs in New Guinea, indicates that palm ethnobotany is neglected in the world’s most bioculturally diverse island, and gives directions for future research.

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T.F. Stuessy

Information content for biological classifications [Page 365 - Page 372]


Classification is a fundamental activity of the human species. The aim of all forms of classification is to establish a hierarchical structure of information that serves as a reference system to answer specific questions. In biological classification the objective is to store data in a conveniently retrievable fashion, to infer evolutionary relationships, and to predict undocumented characteristics of the included organisms. Different kinds of data have been used to form a basic data matrix from which to construct biological classifications. Dendrograms have been traditionally used to illustrate relationships among taxa, although such two-dimensional diagrams do not capture all relationships from the original data matrix. Controversies have existed on which algorithms are best suited to construct dendrograms. Explicit phyletic (evolutionary), phenetic, and cladistic schools of quantitative classification have each offered methods for doing do, and each has made claims for capturing maximum information. Decisions on which type of data and algorithms to use depend upon the nature of the systematic and evolutionary questions being posed. Important is the need for detailed evolutionary investigations so that inferred relationships can be properly evaluated. Information theory, a separate discipline, is viewed as having high potential to enrich information content of biological classifications.
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P. Bernhardt, G.R. Camilo & P.H. Weston

Shaken vs scraped: floral presentation contributes to pollinator guild segregation in co-blooming Symphionema montanum and sopogon anemonifolius (Proteaceae) [Page 377 - Page 396]


Sympatric populations of Symphionema montanum R.Br. and Isopogon anemonifolius (Salisb.) Knight showed overlapping flowering periods during November 2009 in the Blue Mountains (New South Wales, Australia). Symphionema montanum has porose anthers encircling the protruding style, and lacks a pollen presenter. In contrast, sessile, longitudinally dehiscent anthers of Isopogon anemonifolius deposit pollen grains on the subterminus of the style (pollen presenter). Neither species secretes nectar. The majority of foragers on Symphionema montanum were polylectic, female bees (Halictidae). Their pollen foraging resembled sonication and shaking. Polylectic, female bees (Colletidae) were dominant foragers on Isopogon anemonifolius grasping styles with their mandibles while scraping the pollen presenter. Exoneura species (Apidae) visited both shrubs. Only two specimens of Callomelitta antipodes on Isopogon anemonifolius carried pollen of both shrub species. Most bees, collected on either shrub, carried the grains of their host mixed with one to six pollen morphotypes of co-blooming, nectariferous taxa. We report a positive correlation between an increase in bee size and the number of morphotypes carried but colletids of Isopogon anemonifolius carried fewer morphotypes than halictids on Symphionema montanum.
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C.E. Jarvis

Georg Rumphius’ Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750) as a source of information on Indonesian plants for Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) – an Addendum [Page 397 - Page 399]


An Addendum, discussing Linnaeus’ generic names with particular reference to Rumphia, is provided to a recently published article.
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L.M.J. Chen, B.E.E. Duyfjes, Ali Ibrahim & W.J.J.O. de Wilde

Flora of Singapore precursors, 16: New records and notes on the plant diversity of Singapore [Page 401 - Page 406]


Due to ongoing work for the Flora of Singapore, a new family record for Singapore, the Stemonaceae, with one species, Stemona curtisii Hook.f., is recorded. In addition, Ammannia crassicaulis Guill. & Perr. in the Lythraceae is newly recorded as naturalising in Singapore. Notes on two rare species, Hernandia nymphaeifolia (C.Presl) Kubitzki in the Hernandiaceae and Securidaca philippinensis Chodat in the Polygalaceae, currently being revised for the Flora of Singapore are presented.
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W.W. Seah, S.M.X. Hung & K.Y. Chong

Flora of Singapore precursors, 17: Clarification of some names in the genus Calophyllum as known in Singapore [Page 407 - Page 411]


The species, Calophyllum soulattri, is found to have been wrongly included in Singapore’s native flora. The name Calophyllum wallichianum var. wallichianum is also found to have been misapplied to a taxon in Singapore and should rather be called Calophyllum rufigemmatum. The nomenclatural history and problems of both taxa are discussed in this paper.
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I.M. Ardaka & W.H. Ardi

A new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from the Moluccas, Indonesia [Page 415 - Page 419]


A new species of Begonia, Begonia mufidahkallae Ardaka & Ardi, is described from Sawai, Seram Utara District, Seram Island, Indonesia. The species is endemic to Seram Island and belongs to Begonia section Petermannia.

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M.B. Atmaja & I.G. Tirta

Notes on the orchids of Bali, Indonesia: six new species records [Page 421 - Page 427]


Six species of orchids are reported as new records for Bali. Two of the species were found to be growing wild in Bali Botanic Garden, which was formerly a part of the Batukahu Nature Reserve, while the rest were collected from other forests in Bali. The six newly recorded species are Bulbophyllum apodum Hook.f., Ceratostylis longipedunculata J.J.Sm., Dendrobium arcuatum J.J.Sm., Dendrobium connatum (Blume) Lindl., Habenaria reflexa Blume and Taeniophyllum hirtum Blume. Brief descriptions and photographs are provided.
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M.J.C. Arshed, E.M. Agoo & M. Rodda

The identity of Marsdenia parasita (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) [Page 429 - Page 433]


A neotype is designated for Marsdenia parasita Blanco and lectotypes are designated for its synonyms Dischidiopsis philippinensis Schltr. and Conchophyllum merrillii Schltr. ex Merr. The new combination, Dischidia parasita (Blanco) Arshed, Agoo & Rodda is proposed. We explain why a specimen collected by Llanos and identified by him as Marsdenia parasita is not original material and thus cannot serve as a lectotype. Moreover, this gathering belongs to a different species, Dischidia vidalii Becc. Dischidia bulacanensis Kloppenb. et al.
is here treated as a synonym of D. parasita.
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M.A.K. Naive, J.A.G.P. Dalisay, E.P.T. Maglangit, G.C. Café & O.M. Nuňeza

Free radical scavenging effects of the Philippine endemic medicinal plant Alpinia elegans (Zingiberaceae) [Page 435 - Page 444]


Alpinia elegans (C.Presl) K.Schum. is an endemic Philippine medicinal plant used in the treatment of various conditions such as muscoloskeletal diseases, hemoptysis, headache, migraine, stomach ache, and as an anti-relapse for women. The major phytochemical constituents of the ethanolic extract from the leaves of Alpinia elegans were screened and their antioxidant activity was evaluated using an in vitro 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging (antioxidant) activity assay. Flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic glycosides were found to be present in the ethanolic leaf extract of Alpinia elegans, while anthraquinone was not detected. High DPPH radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity was observed in the ethanolic leaf extract of Alpinia elegans with a percentage DPPH inhibition of 95.11±1.00 at 500 μg/ml. The present study suggests that the leaf extract is a source of medicinal or pharmaceutical antioxidants. Information derived herein provides a preliminary scientific basis for the existing ethnobotanical knowledge of local
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R.V.A. Docot, N.P. Mendez & C.B.M. Domingo

A new species of Hornstedtia and a new species record of Globba (Zingiberaceae) from Palawan, Philippines [Page 445 - Page 457]


During recent botanical exploration in the province of Palawan, Philippines specimens were collected of a new species, Hornstedtia crispata Docot, and a new species record for the Philippines, Globba francisci Ridl., both from the ginger family Zingiberaceae. The new species is described and illustrated here along with an assessment of its conservation status.
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R.V.A. Docot, K.D. Gutierrez, R.E.E. Mamalias, N.B.R. Espino, A.A.B. Java, C.D. Dineros & E.M.L. Mijares

Two new Zingiber species (Zingiberaceae) from Sorsogon, Philippines [Page 459 - Page 475]


Two new species of gingers (Zingiberaceae), Zingiber aguingayae Docot and Z. subroseum Docot, are described and illustrated here based on recent collections from Mount Bulusan, Sorsogon, Philippines. Our rediscovery of the poorly known Zingiber bulusanense Elmer at the same locality not only allowed us to clarify its identity but also gave us stronger assurance that the two new species are indeed undescribed. Evidence from morphological and molecular data using the ITS region supported the placement of both new species and Zingiber bulusanense within Zingiber sect. Zingiber. The conservation status of the two new species were also assessed.
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J.D. Mood, †J.F. Veldkamp, T. Mandáková, L.M. Prince & H.J. de Boer

Three new species of Boesenbergia (Zingiberaceae) from Thailand and Lao P.D.R. [Page 477 - Page 498]


Boesenbergia bella Mood & L.M.Prince, B. phengklaii Mood & Suksathan, and B. putiana Mood & L.M.Prince are described with photographs and a comparative table. The description of Boesenbergia petiolata Sirirugsa is revised to include morphology not previously noted. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the relevant taxa using plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data are provided.
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O. Theanphong, T. Jenjittikul & W. Mingvanish

Essential oils composition of nine Curcuma species from Thailand: a chemotaxonomic approach [Page 499 - Page 518]


The chemical composition of the essential oils from fresh rhizomes of nine Curcuma L. species was investigated using the GC-MS technique. A total of 136 compounds,representing 97.19–99.11% of the total content of the essential oils, were identified. A dendrogram obtained from the cluster analysis based on their chemical composition was divided into two main clusters. The first cluster, with a high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (e.g. β-curcumene) and oxygenated sesquiterpene (e.g. xanthorrhizol) was composed of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep., C. larsenii Maknoi & Jenjitt., C. sparganiifolia Gagnep. and C. harmandii Gagnep. The second cluster was subdivided into two groups, IIA and IIB. Group IIA with a high content of monoterpene hydrocarbons (e.g. camphene), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (e.g. a-copaene), caryophyllene, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (e.g. caryophyllene oxide), comprised Curcuma parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota Sirirugsa &
M.F.Newman. The other, IIB, with a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (e.g. camphor) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (e.g. germacrone), included Curcuma rubrobracteata Škorničk. et al., C. angustifolia Roxb. and C. singularis Gagnep.
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M. Murugesan, A.A. Mao, L.R. Meitei & S.S. Kambale

Ceropegia khasiana (Apocynaceae: Ceropegieae), a new species from Meghalaya, Northeast India [Page 519 - Page 525]


A new species of Ceropegia, Ceropegia khasiana Murug., A.A.Mao, Meitei & Kambale (Apocynaceae), is described and illustrated from Meghalaya, Northeast India. The new species is superficially similar to Ceropegia macrantha Wight but it differs in having fewer, shorter fascicled roots up to 8 cm long, linear-lanceolate leaves with long acuminate apices, smaller flowers up to 4.7 cm long, 12–18-flowered inflorescences with two flowers open at a time, two umbels per node, corolla tube pinkish outside with dark reddish stripes, reddish inside in mature flowers, greenish or pinkish to reddish at the apex of corolla lobes which are densely ciliate hairy, inflated base with reddish patch at middle, outer corona with very sparse small ciliate hairs, and each pair of follicular mericarps unequal in length.
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Year of Publication: 2019, Vol. 71 (Supplement 2)

Date Published 27 September 2019
B. G. Briggs & K. L. Wilson

David Mabberley and Australian botany [Page 7 - Page 24]
David Mabberley has worked on five continents but chose Australia as his home, moving there in 1996. By then, he already had an outstanding international reputation and his contributions to Australian botany and Australian botanical history had started with his biographies of botanist Robert Brown and botanical artist Ferdinand Bauer. Joseph Banks, Brown and Bauer have remained continuing interests for him with further publications and lectures. In Australia he has contributed to the treatments of Meliaceae and Rutaceae in the Flora of Australia, drawn attention to the work of John Bidwill and other botanical figures, established important collaborations on the phylogeny and diseases of Citrus, investigated Red Cedar (Toona ciliata), given master classes in economic botany, and much more. Moving to Australia did not deflect David from his global reach in tropical botany, the world’s flora in The Plant-book, and economically important plants. He has contributed greatly to Australian botany, but his career of outstanding achievement continues to be global, not limited to a single continent.
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M.F. Large

Mabberley’s scholarship [Page 25 - Page 41]
David Mabberley’s distinguished and productive academic and administrative positions, roles, honours, books and other publications are given.
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A.M. Sing

Recollections of the ‘MabLab’, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, 1977–1996 [Page 43 - Page 46]
Personal reflections are offered on the botanical life of David Mabberley during his time at Oxford University.
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N.P. Taylor

E.J.H. Corner — Mabberley’s mentor — and his contributions to the Singapore Botanic Gardens’ heritage [Page 47 - Page 52]
The life and work of E.J.H. Corner during his time at Singapore Botanic Gardens, and how this contributed to the Gardens’ eventual inscription as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is discussed.
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I. Friis

G.C. Oeder’s conflict with Linnaeus and the implementation of taxonomic and nomenclatural ideas in the monumental Flora Danica project (1761–1883) [Page 53 - Page 56]
Hitherto unpublished parts of the history of the IconesFlorae Danicae (1761–1883), one of the largest illustrated botanical works published, are analysed; it covered the entire flora of the double monarchy of Denmark–Norway, Schleswig and Holstein and the North Atlantic dependencies. A study of the little noticed taxonomic and nomenclatural principles behind the Icones is presented. G.C. Oeder, founder of the project, approved the ideas of Buffon and Haller and rejected Linnaean binary nomenclature because of its lack of stability of genera. In the Icones …, Oeder cited all names used for each plant in chronological order, with the binary Linnaean name last, to which principle Linnaeus reacted. By the end of the 18th century, Linnaean nomenclature had become standard, apart from in Flora Danica and a very few other botanical works. Applying Linnaean nomenclature elsewhere, O.F. Müller, editor 1775–1782, and M. Vahl, editor 1787–1799, followed Oeder’s norm in the Icones. J.W. Hornemann, editor 1810–1840, followed Oeder in his first fascicles, but began experimenting with changes towards Linnaean nomenclature from 1810. After 1840, subsequent editors consistently applied Linnaean principles for accepted names and synonyms.
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C.E. Jarvis

Georg Rumphius’ Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750) as a source of information on Indonesian plants for Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) [Page 87 - Page 107]
The Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750) and the supplementary Herbarii Amboinensis Auctuarium (1755) of Georg Eberhard Rumpf (Rumphius) (1627–1702) provided detailed descriptions and illustrations of the plants of the island of Ambon, then a Dutch colony in the Maluku Islands (Moluccas) of Indonesia. The initial work, published in six volumes, contained a great deal of new botanical, medicinal and ethnographical information from a part of the world then little-known. Published in the Netherlands long after Rumphius’ death by the Director of the Amsterdam Botanic Garden, Johannes Burman, the work appeared prior to Carl Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum (1753) in which the consistent use of binomial names was introduced. However, in that work, Linnaeus referred to only a handful of Rumphius’ species accounts. More detailed studies by Linnaeus of Rumphius’ work soon followed, notably in the dissertation Herbarium Amboinense (May 1754; November 1759). In all, only about 100 of the nearly 700 taxa illustrated by Rumphius were referred to by Linnaeus in his various publications, though many of those that were cited serve as nomenclatural types for their corresponding Linnaean binomials. The reasons for Linnaeus’ apparent neglect of such an important source of novel information are explored.
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H.W. Lack

Flora Graeca on the European continent [Page 109 - Page 122]
Flora Graeca is a work in ten folio volumes, published in London between 1806 and 1840. It is based on the botanical collections made by John Sibthorp during his travels in what is now Cyprus, Greece, Italy and Turkey and the pictorial documentation of the plants produced by Ferdinand Bauer. The text was written by James Edward Smith, Robert Brown and John Lindley. Flora Graeca was printed in a tiny edition with the result that many botanists considered it to be non-existent or as only a manuscript. This paper deals with the few copies of Flora Graeca kept today in libraries on the European continent and their historical backgrounds – three in Paris, one in Vienna and Darmstadt respectively, all apparently subscription copies, while the copies in St. Petersburg and Copenhagen were previously owned by Fredrick North, 5th Earl of Guildford, and John Platt. The botanical affiliations of the previous owners, among them Franz I, Emperor of Austria, and Ludwig I, Grand Duke of Hesse, are explained. The libraries on the European continent that have copies of the so-called Bohn reissue of Flora Graeca are listed. Particular attention is given to the Belgrade copy, a hybrid consisting of printed title matter with some of the landscapes copied by hand and the 966 engravings, whereas all text pages, indices and appendices have been written on a type writer.
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C. Riedl-Dorn & M. Riedl

Ferdinand Bauer or Johann and Joseph Knapp? A rectification [Page 123 - Page 142]
The first part of the following paper deals with the life, travels, professional career as a natural history painter, use of colour charts and heritage of Ferdinand Bauer. The use of Ferdinand Bauer’s colour chart(s) by other painters is also discussed. It is followed by a short history of the use of colour charts. The final part discusses the attribution of watercolours preserved at the Vienna Natural History Museum that have hitherto been ascribed to Ferdinand Bauer. They are compared to pictures at the Austrian National Library, at the Museum of Applied Arts in Vienna and at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg that were produced by Joseph Knapp and should be attributed to him using evidence from the use of specific paper and some technical details.
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P.J. de Lange, M.F. Large, L. Shepherd, J.R. Rolfe & R.O. Gardner

The endemic that never was — resolving the status of Coprosma solandri (Rubiaceae) [Page 143 - Page 153]
Coprosma solandri, an enigmatic species known only from the type collection, was described in 1897 by New Zealand botanist Thomas Kirk, based on material included in a duplicate set of Banks & Solander specimens, sent at Kirk’s request, by the Natural History Museum (BM) in London to the Colonial Museum in Wellington in 1895. Here we revisit Coprosma solandri concluding that the specimens on which that name was based were not collected in New Zealand. We conclude the type of Coprosma solandri was derived from Hawaiian material of C. ernodeoides A.Gray that was accidentally sent to New Zealand on the assumption that Banks & Solander had collected it from there. Although available evidence precludes definite linkage to a specific collector, we raise the possibility that the original material derives from an Archibald Menzies collection made in 1793 in Hawai’i. The recognition that Coprosma solandri and C. ernodeoides are conspecific finally removes a puzzling Coprosma from the New Zealand flora 122 years after it was described and accepted uncritically as an endemic to that country.
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M. Cheek & D. Bridson

Three new threatened Keetia species (Rubiaceae—Vanguerieae), from the forests of the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania [Page 155 - Page 168]
Keetia sp. A, of the Flora of Tropical East Africa, based on Mabberley & Salehe 1496, is formally named as Keetia davidii following the discovery of a second specimen, also from the Ukaguru Mountains of the Eastern Arc of Tanzania. This small tree or shrub is assessed as Endangered using the IUCN 2012 standard. Keetia sp. B, a shrub from Kwiro Forest near Mahenge, is described as Keetia wasumbii. Based on Cribb et al. 11027, it is assessed as Critically Endangered. Keetia sp. C, formally named as Keetia semsei based on Semsei 2025, from the Shikurufumi Forest near the Uluguru Mountains, is also assessed as Critically Endangered. The three species each derive from separate threatened patches of forest that are among the least well-surveyed and least protected in the Eastern Arc Mountain archipelago. For this reason, naming them, so enabling inclusion in the IUCN Red List, is important if they are to be included in conservation prioritisation exercises.
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†D.G. Frodin

Should a flora account be taken for granted? A fresh look at Polyscias serratifolia (Araliaceae) [Page 171 - Page 188]
Polyscias serratifolia (Miq.) Lowry & G.M.Plunkett (Gastonia serratifolia (Miq.) Philipson) currently encompasses a range of small to large trees endemic to Malesia save for two localities in the Solomon Islands. Latterly it has been referred to Polyscias subgen. Tetraplasandra but, lacking genomic analyses, only by assumed association with Polyscias spectabilis (Harms) Lowry & G.M.Plunkett. Nothing should, however, be taken for granted: collections accounted for since 1979, notably from ‘Wallacean’ Malesia, suggest that Polyscias serratifolia s.l. is a cluster of species, some previously described. From a total of 100 records and utilising both specimens and digital images I examined several likely diagnostic morphological characters, some not before used, and show that these taxa represent varying, but distinguishable, combinations of their states. Hopefully this will lead to additional field studies and collections including material for genomic analyses. Many of these taxa have not been recollected for decades or even a century or more. As a first step towards a revision, evaluations of the existing published taxa are presented, and for all eight new combinations are made or revived (Tetraplasandra koordersii Harms, Gastonia papuana Miq., Tetraplasandra paucidens Miq., T. philippinensis Merr., and T. solomonensis Philipson along with the imperfectly known Gastonia eupteronoides Teijsm. & Binn., Polyscias serratifolia proper, and Gastonia winkleri Harms).
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C.M. Pannell

Aglaia mabberleyi Pannell (Meliaceae), a new species from Borneo [Page 189 - Page 195]
Aglaia mabberleyi Pannell is described as new from Borneo. It is distinguished from Aglaia rufibarbis Ridl. under which name it has hitherto been treated.
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Z. Ezedin and G.D. Weiblen

Additions and changes to Ficus (Moraceae) in New Guinea with comments on the world’s largest fig [Page 197 - Page 216]
Two new species of Ficus in New Guinea are described and a third species is resurrected to improve the classification of Ficus sect. Dammaropsis, sect. Sycidium, and sect. Papuasyce. Ficus sect. Dammaropsis is extraordinary in producing by far the world’s largest known figs. New morphological, ecological, and molecular observations support recognising as separate species the lowland and highland forms of Ficus dammaropsis (Warb.) Diels sensu lato. The lowland form, described here as Ficus brusii Weiblen, is distinguished from the highland form by its much smaller figs that bear recurved, acuminate lateral bracts. The description of Ficus dammaropsis is amended to refer to the highland form with the world’s largest fig and includes F. dammaropsis var. obtusa Corner. Evidence from DNA suggests pollination by distinct fig wasp species and reproductive isolation between Ficus brusii and F. dammaropsis. Ficus hystricicarpa Warb. (sect. Sycidium) is resurrected from synonymy under Ficus wassa Roxb. on account of its conspicuously warty and hispidulous syconia. Lastly, an ecological genetic study led to the discovery of a third species occupying an altitudinal contact zone between Ficus itoana Diels of hill forest and Ficus microdictya Diels of montane forest. These members of the New Guinea endemic Ficus sect. Papuasyce point to a rare evolutionary shift in the sexual system from functional dioecy to monoecy. Here we describe Ficus umbrae Ezedin & Weiblen on the basis of morphological intermediacy and molecular evidence to report the first functionally gynomonoecious Ficus species.
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D.C. Thomas & W.H. Ardi

Begonia mabberleyana (Begoniaceae), a new species from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia [Page 217 - Page 223]
Based on collections from the Banggai Regency, Sulawesi, Indonesia, the new species Begonia mabberleyana D.C.Thomas & Ardi is described and illustrated. This species is restricted to limestone habitats and endemic to Central Sulawesi. A provisional conservation assessment indicates a Critically Endangered (CR) status for the species.
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R.P.J. de Kok

Cinnamomum mabberleyi, a new species from Vietnam and Laos [Page 225 - Page 229]
A new species of Cinnamomum (Lauraceae), C. mabberleyi, is named from Vietnam and Laos. A formal description, notes on distribution, conservation status and ecology, and a map are given; it is differentiated from Cinnamomum tsoi C.K.Allen.
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P. Baas, B.-J. van Heuven, X.Y. Ng & N. Vander Velde

Biomechanical and hydraulic challenges for a tropical swamp forest and driftwood tree – Alstonia spatulata Blume (Apocynaceae) [Page 231 - Page 244]
Rootwood and basal stemwood of Alstonia spatulata is polystyrene-like in texture and softness when dry. It has been traditionally used for pith helmets, rafters, and as cork substitute, and can be dispersed over long distances as driftwood. This driftwood is so common on the beaches across the Central Pacific that in the Marshall Islands a special traditional use of the wood for floaters or cork substitutes named wũj has emerged. Here we describe this ultralight driftwood and the rootwood and basal stemwood of Alstonia spatulata, a tree from swamp forests of Southeast Asia. The  round-tissue is composed of very thinwalled modified fibres without tip growth and vestured pits without borders. Axial parenchyma is in narrow marginal bands, and scanty paratracheal. Vessels are narrow. Rays are extremely low and mostly uniseriate. We discuss the biomechanical and hydraulic conductivity paradox of small to medium-sized trees resting on an extremely weak and soft trunk base (at the root collar), and the parallel evolution of similar very soft woods in swamp forests of both the Old and the New World and in the Deccan fossil record of India.
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D.A. Baum

Plant parts: processes, structures, or functions? [Page 245 - Page 256]
It is usually taken for granted that plants are composed of a series of discrete parts that can readily be compared both within a single plant and between closely or even distantly related organisms. The biological meaning of ‘part’ needs to be made more rigorous such that the naming of a part or the homologising of parts among organisms constitutes a scientific hypothesis that is testable, at least in principle. I explore three alternative approaches to defining parts. The parts-as-structures approach holds that parts (or “phenes”) are aspects of an organism that would not have been formed during development in the absence of causal genetic factors. A structural phene hypothesis is refuted by the lack of a hypothetical genetic deletion that would ablate just this part of the organism. The parts-as-functions approach focuses on pieces of the organism that could have been functionally different if one or more gene in the genome were mutated. A functional phene hypothesis is refuted by showing that all mutations affecting the phene have pleiotropic consequences. The part-as-process approach equates parts with developmental modules, making it especially helpful for addressing the
concept of serial homology. I conclude that, depending on the context, parts are best understood sometimes as structures, sometimes as functions, and sometimes as processes, but in each case we need to develop rigorous concepts rather than falling back on human perception as the ultimate arbiter of part-ness.
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A. Hay

Durianology, discovery, and saltation — the evolution of aroids [Page 257 - Page 313]
It is argued that E.J.H. Corner’s ‘durianology’ is an integrative, holistic approach to the evolution of angiosperm form which complements reductive, atomistic phylogenetic methods involving the reification of individuated high-level abstractions in the concept of morphological ‘character evolution’. A case is made that the Durian Theory involved in part the advanced, holistic cognitive mode of insight, and, drawing on recent findings from cognitive science, it is proposed that insight problem-solving may overcome some of the limitations and distortions of dis-integrative character analysis, and lead to discovery of novel morphological relations and global pattern recognition. Evidence drawn from molecular phylogenetic analyses, developmental studies, and from gross morphology is presented that supports an insight-based hypothesis of direct, saltatory derivation of the Araceae from an ancestor with shoot apices not enclosed by sheathing leaf bases, acropetally developed, reticulate-veined compound leaves, and a terminal polymerous strobiloid flower. It is proposed that this saltation led to an array of morphologically hybrid and compound decanalised structures blurring conventional morphological categories such as rhachis, rhachilla, petiolule and venation; leaf base and stipule; leaf and leaflet; leaf and perianth; flower and inflorescence; flower and floral organ; fruit and infructescence; and fruit and seed. The associated perturbation of developmental routines led both to great diversification and to widespread parallel simplification series. It is argued that holistic evolutionary hypotheses cannot usefully be tested using current atomistic phylogenetic methodology applied to  orphological characters. It is suggested that holarchical 258 Gard. Bull. Singapore 71 (Suppl. 2) 2019 (nested-hierarchical) rather than matrix character sets may provide a more holistic framework for evolutionary hypothesis-testing involving the interplay between molecular phylogeny, evodevo data and hypotheses, and the quantitative and/or probabilistic analysis of contextualised character distribution.
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W.D. Hawthorne & C.A.M. Marshall

Rapid Botanic Survey, Bioquality and improving botanical inventory in the tropics by integrating across spatial scales [Page 315 - Page 333]
We review the Rapid Botanic Survey method (RBS), in the context of botanical recording to date. The concept of bioquality, a biodiversity value respecting global rarity, is summarised. Bioquality assessment involves the Star system for categorising species by global rarity; and a Genetic Heat Index (GHI) which aggregates Stars into community scores. All vascular plant species in tropical Africa have Stars, and >3.1 million botanical records have been databased across the continent (Marshall et al., 2016). Presented here are updated bioquality scores from continental tropical Africa, and especially coastal East Africa, and calculated for sample units of various shapes and sizes: East African Flora regions, one degree squares, forest reserves, to fine scale (sample-level) hotspots along the East African coast. GHI is globally standardised and has been calculated for survey data outside Africa, though seldom in tropical Asia. RBS data can also be used to distinguish vegetation types and can include ethnobotanical data. It is recommended as a way to standardise biodiversity or environmental Impact assessment nationally and globally, and for integrating such survey results in databases that will be increasingly useful as the tension between conservation and deforestation increases, and the climate changes.
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M. Heads

Biogeography and ecology in a pantropical family, the Meliaceae [Page 335 - Page 461]
This paper reviews the biogeography and ecology of the family Meliaceae and maps many of the clades. Recently published molecular phylogenies are used as a framework to interpret distributional and ecological data. The sections on distribution concentrate on allopatry, on areas of overlap among clades, and on centres of diversity. The sections on ecology focus on populations of the family that are not in typical, dry-ground, lowland rain forest, for example, in and around mangrove forest, in peat swamp and other kinds of freshwater swamp forest, on limestone, and in open vegetation such as savanna woodland. Information on the altitudinal range of the genera is presented, and brief notes on architecture are also given. The paper considers the relationship between the distribution and ecology of the taxa, and the interpretation of the fossil record of the family, along with its significance for biogeographic studies. Finally, the paper discusses whether the evolution of Meliaceae can be attributed to ‘radiations’ from restricted centres of origin into new morphological, geographical and ecological space, or whether it is better explained by phases of vicariance in widespread ancestors, alternating with phases of range expansion.
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K.M. Wong & L. Neo

Species richness, lineages, geography, and the forest matrix: Borneo’s ‘Middle Sarawak’ phenomenon [Page 463 - Page 496]
Contemporary studies into the spectrum of plant life assembled on the island of Borneo continue to demonstrate an astonishing richness for some groups. Not all lineages are equivalent in their richness, and both biogeographic and ecological factors are the principal correlates of species richness and lineage diversification. The ways in which population genetic factors may influence the generation and persistence of variation, and their interaction with environmental change, could have fundamental importance in how diversity is maintained. Central Sarawak in the northwest Borneo hotspot is a premier ecological theatre where the interplay of such factors operates: its plant species richness is astounding, floristic documentation continues perhaps too slowly, and research and conservation priorities continue to loom large. Unfortunately, this resource has been severely modified in the several decades spanning the turn of the 21st century. The importance of increasing public perception, especially with well-illustrated accounts of this biological richness and its significance through a natural history perspective, will be as critical as the slowly advancing frontiers of the scientific platform on which our understanding depends. 
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P.C. Boyce & S.Y. Wong

Borneo and its disproportionately large rheophytic aroid flora [Page 497 - Page 524]
On the basis of decades of field observations and multidisciplinary research, in particular directed at species of Araceae exhibiting rheophytism, we offer an overview of morphological diversity among the more than 130 aroid species so adapted on Borneo. Based on a combination of morphological and concomitant ecological occurrence, a preliminary scheme of subcategories of van Steenis’ “rheophytic landplants” is outlined with the purpose of encouraging study to better understand the impetus of obligate rheophytic aroids’ evolution. It is hoped that the proposed subcategories will encourage targeted research with abundant field-based observations. Criticism is directed at the current demand by scientific journals that computer algorithm-generated statistical ‘proof’ be provided for all observational life science writing and further insisting that all such observations be linked to a ‘big picture’ by comparison within the context of a global perspective, preferably incorporating whatever themes are currently fashionable in the field. Such requirements discourage researchers, and particularly students, from undertaking purely observational research, and effectively result in the suppression of publication of vital observational data while encouraging publication of statistically well-supported biological nonsense.
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R. Kiew & L.G. Saw

Corner’s Riau Pocket and other hytogeographical provinces in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 525 - Page 538]
Four phytogeographical provinces have been recognised in Peninsular Malaysia — the Northern Province, the Perak Province, the Continental Intrusion and the Riau Pocket. The Riau Pocket, originally spelt Riouw, was restricted to SE Johor, Singapore, Banka, Riau Islands, SE Sumatra and NW Borneo but later was expanded to cover the entire east coast of Peninsular Malaysia as far north as Kelantan on the premise that this area harboured the Borneo element of the flora. However, based on a combination of a characteristic assemblage of species, a significant number of endemic species, and the absence of species from adjacent areas, the Riau Pocket is reinstated in its original sense. The boundary between the Riau Pocket and the east coast flora appears to be the Sungai Anak Endau. The Northern Province is a distinct province that lies in the northwest of Peninsular Malaysia that experiences a monsoon climate. It harbours a characteristic assemblage of species and has close affinity with the flora of southern Thailand. Based on the distribution of a sample of 969 taxa, the continental element is shown to be a significant part of the Peninsular Malaysian flora (about a fifth of species) but it is not restricted to a particular area. The Continental Intrusion originally defined by Corner is therefore not supported. The Perak Province is also not recognised because the 969-taxon sample demonstrates that it does not harbour a characteristic assemblage of species nor does it have distinct boundaries. In addition, although the 969-taxon sample shows that for the flora in general there are more Sumatra species than Borneo species in Peninsular Malaysia, the Sumatra species are not better represented in Perak, nor are Borneo species better represented on the east coast.
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