Year of Publication 2021, Vol. 73 (2)

Date Published 10 December 2021
B.C. Ho & P. Sukkharak

Thysananthus ciliaris (Lejeuneaceae, Marchantiophyta), a rare species new to Singapore from the Singapore Botanic Gardens [Page 237 - 244]
Thysananthus ciliaris, a rare and poorly known species from Southeast Asia, is newly discovered in Singapore in the Singapore Botanic Gardens. Its oil bodies are here reported for the first time for the species. The geographical distribution of all published occurrences of the species is briefly discussed. Provisional conservation assessments are given at the global and Singapore national levels based on current knowledge. A lectotype is designated in a second step lectotypification.
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P.K.F. Leong & H.K. Lua

Ficus subulata, a new record for Singapore [Page 245 - 251]
A new record for Singapore, Ficus subulata Blume, has been discovered growing in several small patches of secondary forest on Pulau Ubin. It is described here based on observations of the plant on Pulau Ubin along with notes on its habitat. A key to the Singapore species of Ficus subgenus Sycidium section Palaeomorphe, to which F. subulata belongs, is given. Male and female individuals of a Kradibia pollinating fig wasp species were found within a syconium of a plant specimen. They were collected and vouchered and are illustrated here.
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L.M. Choo, A.H.B. Loo, Y.S. Yeoh, X.Y. Ng, W.F. Ang & K.B.H. Er

Phanera ferruginea var. griffithiana (Fabaceae, Cercidoideae): resolving the status of a lesser-known climbing legume in Singapore [Page 253 - 266]
Phanera ferruginea (Roxb.) Benth. is reported as a naturalised species for the Flora of Singapore. This species of climbing legume is represented by Phanera ferruginea var. griffithiana (Benth.) Bandyop., Ghoshal & M.K.Pathak in Singapore. The status of the species in Singapore, which is known only from Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, has hitherto not been fully investigated. We provide a description of the species from Bukit Timah, a comprehensive account of its origin through literature records and herbarium specimens, along with a taxonomic key and field characters for the Phanera species of Singapore.
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T.M.A. Utteridge

Flora of Singapore precursors, 26: The genus Maesa (Primulaceae) in Singapore and clarification of Maesa ramentacea in Malesia [Page 267 - 278]
Two species of Maesa are recorded for Singapore: the scrambling species M. sumatrana Scheff. found in the Central Catchment area, and the small tree taxon M. leptobotrya Hance found primarily in the Bukit Timah area. Both species have traditionally been misidentified as the widespread species Maesa ramentacea (Roxb.) A.DC., and this taxonomic confusion is discussed; a key to the two species, descriptions and photographs are provided.
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A. Phang

Flora of Singapore precursors, 27: Typifications in the yam family (Dioscoreaceae) and the resurrection of Dioscorea tenuifolia [Page 279 - 292]
Nomenclatural notes on several native species of Dioscoreaceae from Singapore are presented here. Twenty-three names, including nineteen synonyms, are typified. Dioscorea tenuifolia Ridl. is resurrected to the rank of species from a variety.
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J. Chen, X.Y. Ng, R.C.J. Lim, H.K. Lua & R.M.K. Saunders

Flora of Singapore precursors, 28: Taxonomic and nomenclatural clarification of Kadsura species (Schisandraceae) in Singapore [Page 293 - 306]
Recent taxonomic and floristic accounts list Kadsura scandens (Blume) Blume as the sole native Kadsura species in Singapore. However, these works have overlooked Ridley’s earlier documentation of another species, Kadsura verrucosa (Gagnep.) A.C.Sm., which was recorded under the misapplied name K. cauliflora. The reduction of Kadsura cauliflora to a synonym of K. scandens led to the uncritical acceptance of a single Kadsura species in Singapore. The confusion between Kadsura scandens and the morphologically similar K. verrucosa may be partly attributed to the demonstrably ambiguous lectotype of K. scandens. An epitype is therefore designated for Kadsura scandens. Key differences between the two Kadsura species and brief propagation notes are provided here.
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H.J. Beentje

Flora of Singapore precursors, 29: A new name for Ficus dubia Wall. ex King (Moraceae) [Page 307 - 308]
The new name Ficus lindsayana Beentje is proposed for the later homonym Ficus dubia Wall. ex King (Moraceae).
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E.M. Gardner & N.J.C. Zerega

Taxonomic updates to Artocarpus subgenus Artocarpus (Moraceae) and allied taxa with a particular focus on the species native to Singapore [Page 309 - 374]
The breadfruit genus Artocarpus J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. (Moraceae) has sixteen species in Singapore, fourteen of them native. In this precursory study to the treatment of Artocarpus for the Flora of Singapore, we present updated phylogenomic analyses of Artocarpus subgenus Artocarpus based on 517 nuclear genes. The following taxonomic changes based on recent phylogenetic analyses, review of herbarium specimens, and field observations, are proposed. Artocarpus subg. Cauliflori (F.M.Jarrett) Zerega is reduced to a section within Artocarpus subg. Artocarpus, and Artocarpus sect. Glandulifolium F.M.Jarrett is raised to subgenus status. The new monotypic subgenus Artocarpus subg. Aenigma E.M.Gardner & Zerega is proposed for Artocarpus sepicanus Diels, whose phylogenetic position remains uncertain and may be of ancient hybrid origin. Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume, A. scortechinii King and A. corneri Kochummen are recognised as distinct species. Artocarpus clementis Merr. is reinstated as distinct from A. lanceifolius Roxb. Artocarpus calophyllus Kurz and A. melinoxylus Gagnep. are reinstated as distinct from both A. chama Buch.-Ham. and A. rigidus Blume. Artocarpus nigrescens Elmer is reinstated as distinct from A. treculianus Elmer. Keys to the subgenera, the sections of Artocarpus subg. Artocarpus and to the species found in Singapore are presented. A nomenclatural synopsis of subgenera Artocarpus, Aenigma and Glandulifolium is presented with taxonomic notes to aid in identification. Seventeen lectotypes, six of them in a second step, and two neotypes are designated.
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G.A. Levin

Typifications of Malesian Putranjivaceae [Page 375 - 398]
A review of names and types in Putranjivaceae relevant to Malesia has been undertaken. Fifty-six lectotype designations (including three second-step lectotypifications) and four neotype designations are given. In addition, a previous lectotypification is discussed.
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L.M. Camangeg, W. Cabanillas, M.N. Tamayo, V.C. Mangussad, M.A.K. Pranada & Y.P. Ang

Two endemic new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Palawan, Philippines [Page 399 - 412]
On recent expeditions, two endemic new species of Begonia sect. Baryandra, Begonia obscuribracteata Y.P.Ang, Cabanillas & M.N.Tamayo and Begonia tandikan Pranada, L.M.Camangeg, Cabanillas & Y.P.Ang, were discovered and are hereby described and illustrated. Begonia obscuribracteata is similar to B. cabanillasii Y.P.Ang et al. in having suborbicular leaves that are adaxially hairy, five conspicuous wings on the ovary, and tepals that are hairy on the outside. However, it can be easily distinguished by features of its leaves, stipules, and bracts. A key to similar Begonia species with a conspicuous 5-winged ovary is provided. Begonia tandikan morphologically resembles B. beijnenii Y.P.Ang et al. but differs by having a broadly ovate (vs subrhomboid) lamina with a villous (vs glabrous) upper surface, shorter and wider stipules with aristate (vs cuspidate) apices, and minutely pilose (vs glabrous) bracts. Following IUCN guidelines, Begonia obscuribracteata is assessed as Endangered (EN) and Begonia tandikan as Critically Endangered (CR).
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R.V.A. Docot, M.A.K. Pranada & N.P. Mendez

Taxonomic notes on Philippine Hornstedtia (Zingiberaceae) including a description of a new species [Page 413 - 423]
A new species, Hornstedtia olivacea Docot & Pranada, from the province of Quezon, Philippines is described here with information on its distribution, habitat and phenology, along with a provisional IUCN conservation assessment. A second-step lectotypification of Hornstedtia conoidea Ridl. is proposed and a previous lectotypification of Hornstedtia microcheila Ridl. is clarified. Examination of the collection Ramos & Edaño 44454 supports the occurrence of Hornstedtia havilandii (K.Schum.) K.Schum. in the Philippines but new material is needed to check if the populations in the province of Sulu are distinct enough from the populations in Borneo to be recognised as a distinct taxon. An updated key to the Hornstedtia species of the Philippines is also provided.
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F. Brambach & P.B. Pelser

A replacement name for a Philippine species of Actinodaphne (Lauraceae) [Page 425 - 426]
We propose the replacement name Actinodaphne ramosii Brambach & Pelser for Actinodaphne lanceolata (Merr.) Kosterm. ex Brambach & Pelser, an illegitimate later homonym of Actinodaphne lanceolata Dalzell & A.Gibson.
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K. Souvannakhoummane, S. Lanorsavanh, S. Tagane, P. Souladeth, P. Phonepaseuth, W. Pongamornkul & V. Lamxay

Six new species and eight new records of Gesneriaceae from Laos [Page 427 - 456]
Six new species of Gesneriaceae from Laos, namely Didymocarpus angustiflorus Souvann. & Lanors., D. bolavenensis Souvann., Soulad. & Phonep., D. laoticus Souvann. & Lanors., D. trilobus Souvann. & Phonep., Hemiboea olivifolia Souvann. & Tagane and Paraboea planiflora Souvann. & Lanors., are described and illustrated. Additionally, Aeschynanthus bracteatus Wall. ex A.DC., A. micranthus C.B.Clarke, Epithema ceylanicum Gardner, Lysionotus serratus D.Don, Microchirita luteola C.Puglisi, Paraboea swinhoei (Hance) B.L.Burtt, Petrocosmea kerrii Craib and Pseudochirita guangxiensis (S.Z.Huang) W.T.Wang, are newly recorded for the flora of Laos.
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D.J. Middleton, Thant Shin & Y. Baba

A new species of Petrocosmea (Gesneriaceae) from Myanmar [Page 457 - 460]
The new species Petrocosmea villosa D.J.Middleton from Shan State, Myanmar is described. It is most similar to Petrocosmea kerrii Craib, P. crinita (W.T.Wang) Z.J.Qiu and P. heterophylla B.L.Burtt in Petrocosmea sect. Deinanthera but differs particularly in inflorescence structure, inflorescence indumentum and in the long calyx lobes.
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K.A. Sujana & R.G. Vadhyar

A new species of Artabotrys (Annonaceae) from the southern Western Ghats, India [Page 461 - 468]
A new species, Artabotrys sericeus Sujana & Vadhyar, is described from Tamil Nadu, India. The new species shows some resemblance to Artabotrys zeylanicus Hook.f. & Thomson, but it can be easily distinguished by the shape, size, colour and indumentum of the petals as well as the shape and texture of the monocarps. Illustrations, photographs and SEM images of the pollen grains of the new species are provided. The conservation status of the new species is also assessed.
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P. Gyeltshen, M. Hughes & S. Jamtsho

A new species of Begonia sect. Diploclinium, Begonia bhutanensis, from Bhutan [Page 469 - 474]
Begonia bhutanensis P.Gyeltshen & M.Hughes (Begoniaceae) is described from the warm broadleaved forests of Zhemgang district in Bhutan. It is assigned to Begonia sect. Diploclinium as it has a tuberous habit and bifid placentae and is similar to Begonia rubella Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, but differs in having fimbriate bracts (not entire) and rounded wings on the capsule (not elongate triangular). A key to species of Begonia sect. Diploclinium in Bhutan is provided.
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D. Borah, M. Taram, L. Yama & E. Wahlsteen

Begonia arunachalensis (Begoniaceae), a new tuberous species of Begonia from Arunachal Pradesh, India [Page 475 - 480]
A new species, Begonia arunachalensis D.Borah & Wahlsteen (Begoniaceae) is described and illustrated. It is distributed in Papum Pare District of Arunachal Pradesh where it grows near streams in rock crevices. Begonia arunachalensis is similar to B. brevicaulis A.DC. but differs in its pendent fruits, number of locules and capsule wings, and longer lateral wings. It belongs to Begonia sect. Diploclinium.
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P. Murugan, C. Murugan & K. Karthigeyan

Notes on the identity and taxonomy of Ixora cuneifolia and I. notoniana and typification of three names in Ixora [Page 481 - 487]
Ixora predeepii Balan & S.Harikr. and Ixora sivarajiana Pradeep are synonymised under Ixora cuneifolia Roxb. and Ixora notoniana Wall. ex G.Don respectively. Lectotypes are designated for the names Ixora nigricans R.Br. ex Wight & Arn. and Ixora undulata Roxb. ex Sm. A second step lectotype is designated for the name Ixora cuneifolia Roxb.
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K.M. Wong

Book Review [Page 489 - 490]
Bamboos of Hong Kong. N.-H. Xia & Eric K.-Y. Liu, with K.-S. Pang, R.-S. Lin, Jenny Y.-Y. Lau & C.H. Zheng (eds). 2021.
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Year of Publication 2021, Vol. 73 (1)

Date Published 25 May 2021
S.M.L. Lee, K.B.H. Er, A.H.B. Loo & W.F. Ang

Rediscovery of the Sculptured Toadstool, Amanita sculpta (Amanitaceae) in Singapore [Page 1 - 7]
Amanita sculpta Corner & Bas was first collected from Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, in 1939 and 1940 and then described as new in 1962. Since then, there have been no sightings or collections of this fungus in Singapore until recently when it was observed and recollected at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve after a hiatus of more than 80 years.
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I.M. Turner

Flora of Singapore precursors, 22: typifying Tongkat Ali and other notes on the Simaroubaceae in Singapore [Page 9 - 16]
The native Simaroubaceae of Singapore (four genera with one species each) are listed with full synonymy and typification. In the absence of any original material, a neotype is designated for Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Recent collections confirm Samadera indica Gaertn. as native in Singapore. In total 14 lectotypes and 3 neotypes are designated.
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I.M. Turner

Flora of Singapore precursors, 23: Notes on Ochnaceae in Singapore [Page 17 - 27]
The native Ochnaceae of Singapore (five species from three genera) are listed with synonymy and typification. An epitype is designated for Euthemis elegantissima Wall. to fix the application of the name in the sense of Brackenridgea hookeri (Planch.) A.Gray. In addition, 17 lectotypes (including 13 at the second step) and three neotypes (two at the second step) are designated here.
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Y.K.L. Teo, D.J. Middleton & I.M. Turner

Flora of Singapore precursors, 24: Notes on Theaceae in Singapore [Page 29 - 32]
Clarification of the nomenclature of names used for species of Theaceae in Singapore is provided. Lectotypes are designated for Gordonia multinervis King, Gordonia concentricicatrix Burkill, Gordonia excelsa Blume var. sincapuriana Dyer, Gordonia grandis King and Pyrenaria acuminata Planch. ex Choisy.
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M.A. Niissalo & L.M. Choo

Flora of Singapore precursors, 25: Taxonomic notes on new discoveries from Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, including two native genera newly recorded [Page 33 - 48]
As part of a project to sample tissue from all native vascular plants in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, we collected material from four species that have not been previously recorded
in Singapore. Of these, Nervilia singaporensis Niissalo has already been described as a new species, native to Singapore. Two species, Lepidogyne longifolia (Blume) Blume (Orchidaceae)
and Ptyssiglottis kunthiana (Wall. ex Nees) B.Hansen (Acanthaceae), which are reported here, belong to genera that have not previously been recorded in Singapore. Based on their collection
history in the region and their habitat in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, we consider them native to Singapore. The fourth new record, Plectocomiopsis cf. corneri Furtado (Arecaceae), also
reported here, is a new species record for Singapore, but based on the collection history of the species and its only known locality in Singapore, we consider it introduced. The nomenclature
and history of these species are discussed and we designate lectotypes for several names that are relevant to these species: Neottia longifolia Blume, Lepidogyne sceptrum Schltr., Polytrema
aequale Ridl., Polytrema aequale Ridl. var. minor Ridl. and Polytrema vulgare C.B.Clarke. We also designate a neotype for Lepidogyne minor Schltr.
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B.C. Ho, R.S.W. Yeo & L.M.J. Chen

A review of Desmodium s.l. (Leguminosae, subfamily Papilionoideae) in Singapore and nomenclature updates in the Malay Peninsula [Page 49 - 80]
All Desmodium Desv. species previously included in the most recent published checklist for Singapore have been recently transferred to Grona Lour. Desmodium scorpiurus (Sw.) Desv. and Pleurolobus gangeticus (L.) J.St.-Hil. are reported here as non-native new records for Singapore. An identification key to the species of the Desmodium group in Singapore is provided. Descriptions are provided for the new records based on the Singapore specimens. A lectotype is designated for Desmodium polycarpon var. albiflorum Ridl. which is reduced to synonymy of Grona heterocarpos (L.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi subsp. heterocarpos var. heterocarpos. Second step lectotypifications are designated here for Hedysarum heterophyllum Willd. and Hedysarum scorpiurus Sw. 30 species names in tribe Desmodieae for the Malay Peninsula with updated nomenclature is given.
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R.P.J. de Kok

A revision of Litsea (Lauraceae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore [Page 81 - 178]
A revision of all species of the genus Litsea Lam. (Lauraceae) occurring in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore is presented along with a summary of taxonomic history, notable features of morphology, and a key to species. A description, distribution map, and a proposed conservation assessment is presented for each species, together with notes on ecology and ethnobotany. Through this revision, 37 distinct species are recognised. Forty-three names are lectotypified (Cylicodaphne myristicifolia (Wall. ex Nees) Meisn. var. acutata Meisn., Lepidadenia magnifica Miq., Litsea accedens (Blume) Boerl., L. acrantha Ridl., L. amara Blume, L. angulata Blume, L. artocarpifolia Gamble, L. brachystachya (Blume) Boerl., L. brideliifolia Hayata, L. cinerascens Ridl., L. costalis (Nees) Kosterm., L. curtisii Gamble, L. elliptica Blume, L. erectinervia Kosterm., L. fenestrata Gamble, L. ferruginea (Blume) Blume, L. glabrifolia Ridl., L. glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob., L. helferi Hook.f. var. ovata Gamble, L. hirsutissima Gamble var. geniculata Gamble, L. kunstleri Gamble, L. lancifolia (Roxb. ex Nees) Fern.-Vill. var. rufa Ridl., L. machilifolia Gamble var. montana Ridl., L. magnifica (Miq.) Fern.-Vill. var. pahangensis Ridl., L. maingayi Hook.f., L. monopetala (Roxb.) Pers., L. noronhae Blume, L. noronhae Blume var. hexandra Gamble, L. patellaris Gamble, L. penangiana Hook.f., L. petiolata Hook.f., L. quercina Gamble, L. robusta Blume, L. scortechinii Gamble, L. sessiliflora Hook.f., L. spathacea Gamble, L. spathacea Gamble var. tomentosa Gamble, L. sphaerocarpa Blume, L. terminalis Ridl., L. ujongensis Gamble, L. ujongensis Gamble var. nervosa Gamble, Tetranthera angusta Nees and T. cordifolia Meisn.), while three additional names are lectotypified in a second step (L. lancifolia (Roxb. ex Nees) Fern.-Vill., L. monticola Gamble and L. trunciflora Gamble) and eleven names are placed into synonymy for the first time (Cylicodaphne myristicifolia (Wall. ex Nees) Meisn. var. acutata Meisn., L. cinerascens Ridl., L. firma (Blume) Hook.f., L. foxiana Gamble, L. hirsutior Kosterm., L. magnifica (Miq.) Fern.-Vill., L. paludosa Kosterm., L. persella Ridl., L. rufofusca Kosterm., L. spathacea Gamble, and L. umbellata (Lour.) Merr. var. fuscotomentosa (Meisn.) I.M.Turner). Most species have a global conservation assessment of Least Concern, while a few species are either Vulnerable (L. acrantha and L. fenestrata), Endangered (L. claviflora Gamble, L. curtisii and L. penangiana), Critically Endangered (L. ridleyi Gamble) and one species considered to be Data Deficient (L. glabrifolia Ridl.).
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J. Leong-Škorničková, A. Lamb, J. Linton & L. Gokusing

Six new Orchidantha species (Lowiaceae) from Borneo [Page 179 - 202]
Six new Orchidantha species (Lowiaceae) from Borneo, O. gigantea Škorničk. & A.Lamb, O. ismailii Škorničk. & A.Lamb, O. jiewhoei Škorničk. & A.Lamb, O. lutescens Škorničk. & A.Lamb, O. nilusii Škorničk. & A.Lamb and O. ultramafica Škorničk. & A.Lamb are described here. This brings the total number of species in the family to 34 of which 17 are endemic to Borneo. Detailed descriptions, colour plates, preliminary IUCN conservation assessments and a key to all Bornean Orchidantha species are provided.
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S. Kaitongsuk, P. Triboun, S. Suddee, P. Ue-Aree & S. Sungkaew

Paraboea khaoyaica (Gesneriaceae), a new species from Thailand [Page 203 - 207]
Paraboea khaoyaica Kaitongsuk, Triboun & Sungkaew, a new species from Southeastern Thailand, is described and illustrated and its conservation status is assessed. The species is currently only known from the type locality.
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S. Karuppusamy & V. Ravichandran

Drimia jeevae (Asparagaceae), a new species from southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India [Page 209 - 214]
Drimia jeevae Karupp. & V.Ravich. (Asparagaceae) is described as a new species from the Alamparai Hills, Kanyakumari District, which is a part of the southern Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. A detailed description, illustration, phenology, and relevant ecological notes are provided, along with a comparison to the morphologically similar species Drimia razii Ansari and Drimia wightii Lakshmin.
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R. Gogoi, B.B.T. Tham, N. Sherpa, J. Dihingia & S. Borah

Clarification of the taxonomic identity, typification and nomenclature of Impatiens benthamii (Balsaminaceae) [Page 215 - 220]
Impatiens benthamii Steenis (Balsaminaceae) is re-collected from the type locality, Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India, almost 60 years since it was last collected. The history and nomenclatural complexity of this little-known endemic species is discussed. A clarification of the distributional range of the species is given due to previous erroneous reports. To facilitate its proper identification, a detailed description based on live materials and colour photographs is provided. The characters of Impatiens benthamii are compared to those of closely related species. A lectotype is designated.
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E.M. Gardner

Colonial botany and the shifting identity of Balanostreblus ilicifolius Kurz (Moraceae) [Page 221 - 235]
The protologue of Balanostreblus ilicifolius Kurz included the citation of specimens from Bangladesh and Myanmar of a plant now called Taxotrophis ilicifolia (Kurz) S.Vidal. However, the description in the protologue and the accompanying illustration were based largely on the Neotropical Sorocea guilleminiana Gaudich., which was cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta and has similar vegetative characters. This paper seeks to resolve a century of confusion over the identity of Balanostreblus ilicifolius and reviews its history in light of historical correspondence relating to its identity and the trans-continental exchange of plants under British colonialism. The paper concludes that a previous attempt to typify Balanostreblus ilicifolius with an uncited cultivated specimen of Sorocea guilleminiana should be superseded with material from Myanmar cited in the protologue. A lectotype is designated, fixing the application of the name, which can now serve as the basionym of Taxotrophis ilicifolia.
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Year of Publication: 2020, Vol. 72 (2)

Date Published 15 December 2020
W.J.J.O. de Wilde & B.E.E. Duyfjes

Flora of Singapore precursors, 18: Change of rank for two species in Polygalaceae and Cornaceae [Page 133 - Page 134]


Alangium hirsutum Bloemb. (Cornaceae) and Xanthophyllum amoenum Chodat (Polygalaceae) are reduced to varieties of Alangium longiflorum Merr. and Xanthophyllum stipitatum A.W.Benn. respectively.

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P.R. Gajurel & H.K. Lua

Flora of Singapore precursors, 20: Notes on the genus Piper (Piperaceae) from Singapore [Page 135 - Page 141]


Nomenclatural notes on six species of Piper occurring in Singapore are provided. Nine names are typified. Additional relevant information on the species is also included.

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P.C. van Welzen, D.J. Middleton & S. Lindsay

Flora of Singapore precursors, 21: New records of Euphorbiaceae for Singapore [Page 143 - Page 158]


Seven species of Euphorbiaceae are newly recorded for Singapore of which five are presumed native, one is cryptogenic and one is naturalised. One name is lectotypified. The conservation status of the native species is discussed.
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S.K. Ganesan, R.C.J. Lim, P.K.F. Leong & X.Y. Ng

Microcos antidesmifolia (Malvaceae-Grewioideae), a poorly known species in Singapore [Page 159 - Page 164]


A poorly known species in Singapore, Microcos antidesmifolia (King) Burret, is described and illustrated for the first time. In Singapore, it is known from the type variety, Microcos antidesmifolia (King) Burret var. . Notes on distribution, ecology and conservation status are given. This species is assessed as Critically Endangered for Singapore. A key is given for the five Microcos L. species in Singapore.

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P.J. Chan, Y.Y. Ting, N.E. Rahman, R. Chong, W.N. Lam & K.Y. Chong

Notes on Acer laurinum (Sapindaceae) in freshwater swamp forest in Singapore [Page 165 - Page 172]


Acer laurinum Hassk. was recently recorded as both a new species and genus  for Singapore from the Nee Soon swamp forest in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, but little is known about its biology and ecology. Here, the species is described and notes on its distribution, ecology and proposed conservation status in Singapore are given.

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E.M. Gardner & N.J.C. Zerega

Taxonomic updates to Artocarpus subgenus Pseudojaca (Moraceae), with a particular focus on the taxa in Singapore [Page 173 - Page 213]


The breadfruit genus Artocarpus J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Moraceae) has 16 species in Singapore, 14 of them native. The following taxonomic changes in Artocarpus subgenus Pseudojaca Trécul, based on recent phylogenetic work, are presented with diagnostic characters. Artocarpus griffithii (King) Merr. is reinstated as distinct from A. lamellosus Blanco (which is called A. nitidus Trécul in the earlier literature), also requiring the reinstatement of the following taxa not found in Singapore: A. borneensis (Merr.) F.M.Jarrett, A. humilis Becc., A. vrieseanus Miq. var. subsessilis F.M.Jarrett and A. xanthocarpus Merr. Artocarpus dadah Miq. is reinstated as distinct from A. lacucha Roxb. ex Buch.-Ham., thereby necessitating the reinstatement of the following taxa not found in Singapore: A. fretessii Teijsm. & Binn. ex Hassk., A. ovatus Blanco, and A. vrieseanus var. refractus (Becc.) F.M.Jarrett. Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trécul is restricted to the type subspecies, and A. zeylanicus (F.M.Jarrett) E.M.Gardner & Zerega, formerly a subspecies, is elevated to species level. Thirteen lectotypes and two neotypes are designated.

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L.G. Saw

A new species of Polyosma Blume (Escalloniaceae) and notes on a revision of the genus in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore [Page 215 - Page 231]


Twelve species of Polyosma are recognised for Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, of which only three species are in Singapore. One new species is described, the taxonomy of two species is clarified with five names synonymised, and all names are typified. Provisional conservation assessments are provided for each species.
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L.M. Choo & K.M. Ngo

A revision of the genus Sindora (Fabaceae, Detarioideae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore [Page 233 - Page 251]


Sindora Miq. is a genus of large legume trees found mainly in tropical and subtropical forests from southern China, continental Southeast Asia, and West and Central Malesia. A revision of Sindora in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore is presented with updated descriptions and distributions. The data are derived from a comprehensive study of herbarium specimens from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, together with field observations of individuals growing in natural populations in Singapore. Five species are recorded from Peninsular Malaysia. Four species are recorded from Singapore, all of which also occur in Peninsular Malaysia. Sindora velutina Baker, only recently recorded for Singapore but at the same time noted to be presumed nationally extinct, is reported here as rediscovered. Lectotypes of Sindora siamensis Teijsm. ex Miq. and Sindora velutina are designated here. A second step lectotype is designated for Sindora wallichii Benth. New global-level conservation assessments are proposed for Sindora echinocalyx Prain, Sindora siamensis and Sindora wallichii Benth., while provisional national-level conservation assessments for each species are also reported. Four species of Sindora in Peninsular Malaysia are reported as Least Concern both globally and within Peninsular Malaysia; Sindora siamensis is reported as Least Concern globally but is presumed Nationally Extinct in Peninsular Malaysia. In Singapore all four species of Sindora are reported as Critically Endangered.

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E.S. Fernando, D.N. Celadiña, D.N. Tandang, E.P. Lillo, & M.O. Quimado

Brackenridgea (Ochnaceae) in the Philippines, with notes on foliar nickel hyperaccumulation in the genus [Page 255 - Page 273]


The genus Brackenridgea (Ochnaceae) in the Philippines is revised. Recent field surveys have provided new locality records and ecological and morphological data to distinguish the three Philippine taxa; all are recognised at species level. The new combination, Brackenridgea mindanaensis (Merr.) Fernando is made. Two names are lectotypified and a second step neotypification is made for one name. Foliar nickel hyperaccumulation is confirmed for all Philippine species.

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H.P. Wilson, T. Jimbo, A. Hagwood & M. Hughes

Three new species of Begonia sect. Petermannia (Begoniaceae) from Sandaun Province, Papua New Guinea [Page 275 - Page 284]


Three new species from Begonia sect. Petermannia (Klotzsch) A.DC., Begonia fractalifolia H.P.Wilson & Jimbo, Begonia aikrono H.P.Wilson & Jimbo, and Begonia sandaunensis H.P.Wilson & Jimbo, are described from Sandaun Province in Papua New Guinea. Begonia fractalifolia is known from the type locality and a site c.130 km further south, whereas the other two species are only known from their type localities. The IUCN conservation status of each is assessed as Data Deficient.
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P. Panyadee, W. Tanming & C. Maknoi

Plants without borders: new records of two presumed Thai endemic Gesneriaceae in Laos [Page 285 - Page 290]


Botanical expeditions in Laos through a collaboration between Thailand (Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden) and Laos (Pha Tad Ke Botanic Garden) to document plant diversity and collect plants for ex situ conservation, led to the discovery of two species of Gesneriaceae previously believed to be endemic to Thailand: Damrongia trisepala (Barnett) D.J.Middleton & A.Weber and Didymocarpus formosus Nangngam & D.J.Middleton. Information on these species is provided.
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M. Sabu & V.S. Hareesh

Hedychium mechukanum (Zingiberaceae), a new species from the eastern Himalayas, India [Page 291 - Page 297]


The new species Hedychium mechukanum M.Sabu & Hareesh is described from Arunachal Pradesh, India. It shows similarities to Hedychium urophyllum G.Lodd., H. coronarium J.Koenig, H. flavum Roxb. and H. chrysoleucum Hook. from Northeast India, and to H. qingchengense Z.Y.Zhu from China. A detailed description along with colour photographs are provided for ease of identification. 
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K.A. Kron, P.W. Fritsch, L. Lu & W.S. Judd

New combinations and new and resurrected names in Gaultheria (Ericaceae) [Page 299 - Page 317]


The Wintergreen Group clade of the tribe Gaultherieae (Ericaceae: subfam. Vaccinioideae) comprises the genera Diplycosia Blume, Gaultheria L., and Tepuia Camp. Phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that Gaultheria is not monophyletic, with Diplycosia and Tepuia nested within it. On morphological grounds, the recognition of a single genus in the Wintergreen Group to establish monophyly as the basis for the classification is favoured over subdivision into smaller genera. Here, we make the taxonomic changes necessary for recognising Gaultheria as the sole genus constituting the Wintergreen Group. We make 126 new combinations, erect 17 new names, and resurrect four species names in Gaultheria for all species, varieties, and forms heretofore recognised in the literature under Diplycosia or Tepuia. Additionally we make two new combinations in Gaultheria at the sectional level to accommodate the species from Diplycosia and Tepuia, and provide lectotypes for Pernettyopsis King & Gamble and Gaultheria [unranked] Amphicalyx Endl.
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Year of Publication 2020, Vol. 72 (1)

Date Published 19 June 2020
M.A. Niissalo, L.M. Choo, H. Kurzweil, T.W. Yam & G.S. Khew

A new species of Nervilia (Orchidaceae) from Singapore [Page 1 - Page 14]


The only species of Nervilia Comm. ex Gaudich. included in national checklists and redlists of the Singapore flora is Nervilia punctata (Blume) Makino. This species is treated as presumed nationally extinct. There are three historic collections from Singapore, all collected by H.N. Ridley during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, the identity of these specimens has recently been cast into doubt as the Nervilia adolphi/punctata species alliance has become the subject of taxonomic scrutiny. The lack of visible characters on the existing specimens has so far made it impossible to pinpoint the correct identity of the Singapore specimens. We recently discovered a small population of Nervilia in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve in Singapore, which in our opinion is the same taxon that was collected by Ridley. The plants do not agree with other species in the Nervilia adolphi/punctata species alliance and the taxon is here described as a new species based on the clinandrial tissue surrounding the anther cap as well as the narrow oblong and truncate labellum with curled sides. We currently consider the species to be endemic to Singapore.

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M.A. Niissalo & J. Leong-Škorničková

Dracaena breviflora (Asparagaceae): an unusual species newly recorded in Singapore [Page 15 - Page 21]


Dracaena breviflora Ridl. (Asparagaceae) is newly recorded here for Singapore. A description and colour plates of this unusual species are included. Provisional conservation assessments of Endangered globally and Critically Endangered in Singapore are proposed.

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A.R. Rafidah, A.R. Ummul-Nazrah & W.P. Wan Syafiq

Sohmaea teres (Fabaceae), a new record for Peninsular Malaysia [Page 23 - Page 28]


Sohmaea teres (Wall. ex Benth.) H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi, a new record from Peninsular Malaysia, is described in detail with colour photographs. A key to the two Sohmaea H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi species in Peninsular Malaysia is also provided. The provisional conservation status of this species for Peninsular Malaysia is Critically Endangered because it is found only at a single locality (Gunung Pulai, Kedah) which has been proposed for quarrying.
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I.M. Turner

A new synonym of Lophopyxis maingayi (Lophopyxidaceae) [Page 29 - Page 32]


Combretum perakense M.Gangop. & Chakrab., described from specimens collected in Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, is here reduced to a synonym of Lophopyxis maingay Hook.f. (Lophopyxidaceae). Lectotypes are designated for three other synonyms of Lophopyxis maingayi.

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M. Hughes, D. Girmansyah, A. Randi & H.N.R. Ningsih

Eleven new records, three new species and an updated checklist of Begonia from Kalimantan, Indonesia [Page 33 - Page 58]


The Begonia flora of Kalimantan is very poorly known, in marked contrast to that of Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak. Here we publish eleven new records and three new species (B. bawangensis Girm., Randi & M.Hughes, B. pendulina Girm. & M.Hughes and B. recurvata Girm. & M.Hughes, all in Begonia sect. Petermannia) (Klotzsch) A.DC. for Kalimantan. Provisional conservation assessments according to IUCN criteria are provided for the new species.
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I.A. Savinov

Four new records of Celastraceae for Brunei [Page 59 - Page 63]


Four species belonging to three genera in the Celastraceae are reported here as new records for Brunei, Celastrus monospermus Roxb., Euonymus javanicus Blume, Salacia korthalsiana Miq. and S.maingayi M.A.Lawson. One species, Celastrus monospermus, is also the first record for Malesia. These species are discussed and details of the herbarium specimens in BRUN are provided.
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W.L. Ng, G. Huang, W. Wu, Q. Zhou, Y. Liu & R. Zhou

Molecular confirmation of natural hybridisation between Melastoma sanguineum and M. malabathricum (Melastomataceae) [Page 65 - Page 75]


The genus Melastoma (Melastomataceae) is known to have undergone rapid species radiation, and natural hybridisation has been observed to happen whenever two or more species co-occur. Many cases of natural hybridisation have been confirmed between Melastoma species in China, but only a few cases have been confirmed in Southeast Asia, which is where the majority of the diversity of the genus occurs, although hybrids have been suspected based on morphological intermediacy. Recently in Peninsular Malaysia, we observed co-occurring populations of Melastoma sanguineum Sims and M. malabathricum L., two of the most widely distributed species of Melastoma L. Many individuals with intermediate morphologies were also at the site. In this study, we used DNA sequence data of three partial nuclear genes and one chloroplast locus to determine the identity of the intermediate individuals. We found that the chloroplast haplotypes could be grouped by similarity to clusters corresponding to the two species, and the same individuals shared nuclear alleles from both clusters. Our findings revealed that, (1) the morphologically intermediate individuals are indeed hybrids of Melastoma sanguineum and M. malabathricum; (2) both F1 hybrids and further hybrid generations are present; (3) both species can act as pollen donor.
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J.D. Mood, M. Ardiyani, J.F. Veldkamp, T. Mandáková, L.M. Prince & H.J. de Boer

Nomenclatural changes in Zingiberaceae: Haplochorema is reduced to Boesenbergia [Page 77 - Page 95]


The history of Haplochorema K.Schum. (Zingiberaceae) is reviewed, its morphology is compared to Boesenbergia Kuntze and the molecular phylogenetic position is shown in relation to other Zingiberaceae. Based on a comparative analysis of molecular and morphological data, Haplochorema is reduced to Boesenbergia with eight new combinations. A lectotype for Boesenbergia loerzingii (Valeton) K.Larsen ex M.F.Newman, Lhuillier & A.D.Poulsen is designated here.

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H. Kurzweil, P. Ormerod & A. Schuiteman

The long-lost Myanmar endemic Arundina subsessilis (Orchidaceae) found congeneric with the recently described Chinese Thuniopsis cleistogama [Page 97 - Page 107]


Morphological evidence indicates that the long-lost Arundina subsessilis Rolfe from Upper Myanmar is correctly placed in the genus Thuniopsis L.Li, D.P.Ye & Shi J.Li. The new combination Thuniopsis subsessilis (Rolfe) Ormerod, Kurzweil & Schuit. is made. As this is also the only species in Myanmar that had been referred to the genus Dilochia Lindl., this means that Dilochia is not found in Myanmar. In addition, two specimens which were recently reported in central and western Myanmar are also referred to the genus Thuniopsis.
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M. Taram, D. Borah, N. Krishna, A.K. Pradeep, A. Amrutha & M. Hughes

Begonia oyuniae (Begonia sect. Monophyllon, Begoniaceae), a remarkable new species from Northeast India [Page 109 - Page 115]


The new species Begonia oyuniae M.Taram & N.Krishna is described from Arunachal Pradesh. It belongs to Begonia sect. Monophyllon A.DC., which is a new sectional record for India. Begonia oyuniae shares the ability to produce plantlets at the leaf tip with B. vagans Craib (Begonia sect. Alicida C.B.Clarke) and B. elisabethae Kiew (Begonia sect. Parvibegonia A.DC.), but differs from the former in having glabrous tepals (versus densely glandular hairy) and 2-locular ovaries (versus 3-locular), and from the latter in having an asymmetric androecium (not globose). It differs from the two other species in Begonia sect. Monophyllon in having leaves which have sinuate to lobed margins (not entire), and which produce plantlets around the margin.
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V. Ravichandran, M. Murugesan & C. Murugan

Eugenia bolampattiana (Myrtaceae), a new species from the Bolampatty Hills of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India [Page 117 - Page 123]


Eugenia bolampattiana V.Ravich., Murug. & Murugan (Myrtaceae) is described as a new species from the Bolampatty Hills, Coimbatore District, which is a part of the
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. A detailed description, illustration, colour photographs, phenology, and relevant ecological notes are provided, along with a comparison of the morphologically similar species Eugenia mooniana Wight and Eugenia kalamii Shareef et al. 
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M. Taram & D. Borah

Rhynchotechum nirijuliense (Gesneriaceae), a new species from Northeast India [Page 125 - Page 129]


A new species of Rhynchotechum (Gesneriaceae), Rhynchotechum nirijuliense Taram & D.Borah, is described from Nirijuli of Papum Pare district in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. The new species is compared to Rhynchotechum ellipticum and R. calycinum. A detailed description, colour photographs and notes on the distribution and ecology of the new species are provided.
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P. Baas & T. Fujii

Earlier accounts of driftwood of Alstonia spatulata (Apocynaceae) [Page 131 - Page 132]


We report on records from the 1930s by R. Kanehira of the ultralight driftwood from root- and basalmost stemwood of Alstonia spatulata Blume which were overlooked in Baas et al. (2019).
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Year of Publication: 2019, Vol. 71 (2)

Date Published 16 December 2019
D.J. Middleton, K. Armstrong, Y. Baba, H. Balslev, K. Chayamarit, R.C.K. Chung, B.J. Conn, E.S. Fernando, K. Fujikawa, R. Kiew, H.T. Luu, Mu Mu Aung, M.F. Newman, S. Tagane, N. Tanaka, D.C. Thomas, T.B. Tran, T.M.A. Utteridge, P.C. van Welzen, D. Widyatmoko, T. Yahara & K.M. Wong

Progress on Southeast Asia’s Flora projects [Page 267 - Page 319]
Southeast Asia (Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Timor Leste, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea) is a region of high plant diversity with an estimated 50,000 flowering plant species. Estimates of plant diversity in the region continue to grow as large numbers of new species are described even though there have been suggestions that there are few new species to be found in some parts of Southeast Asia. It is likely that most estimates of species numbers in the countries of Southeast Asia are too low due to the lack of taxonomic work on groups which have many locally endemic species. Differing collecting densities across the region can profoundly affect our understanding of plant diversity and lead to large underestimates of species diversity in poorly collected countries and regions. Progress on each of the major Flora projects in Southeast Asia, Flora of Thailand, the Flora of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam/Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêtnam, Flora Malesiana, Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Flora of Singapore and Flora of Vietnam, along with floristic research in Myanmar, the only country not covered by at least one of these Flora projects, is discussed. In addition to the formal Flora projects, there is much floristic activity occurring in the countries otherwise covered by transnational Floras. 
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Z. Dennehy & R. Cámara-Leret

Quantitative ethnobotany of palms (Arecaceae) in New Guinea [Page 321 - Page 364]
We conducted a bibliographic review of palm use in New Guinea to quantify palm-utilisation patterns across the region’s habitats, countries, and indigenous groups, and to identify the most useful species. We reviewed 187 bibliographic references and 140 herbarium specimens, spanning the years 1885–2018. We found 1178 use-reports and 894 palm-uses for 119 palm species. Lowland tropical rainforest is the best-studied habitat, and Indonesian New Guinea and Papua New Guinea have each received similar research effort. Most palms are used for Utensils and tools, Construction and Human food, and the stem, leaf and fruit are the most utilised palm parts. Only 5% of New Guinea’s indigenous groups have been studied, and <10 use-reports are recorded for most of the indigenous groups studied. Important species included Actinorhytis calapparia H.Wendl. & Drude, Adonidia maturbongsii W.J.Baker & Heatubun, Areca catechu L., Areca macrocalyx Zipp. ex Blume, and Metroxylon sagu Rottb. Overall, our study highlights the importance of palms for fulfilling subsistence needs in New Guinea, indicates that palm ethnobotany is neglected in the world’s most bioculturally diverse island, and gives directions for future research.

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T.F. Stuessy

Information content for biological classifications [Page 365 - Page 372]


Classification is a fundamental activity of the human species. The aim of all forms of classification is to establish a hierarchical structure of information that serves as a reference system to answer specific questions. In biological classification the objective is to store data in a conveniently retrievable fashion, to infer evolutionary relationships, and to predict undocumented characteristics of the included organisms. Different kinds of data have been used to form a basic data matrix from which to construct biological classifications. Dendrograms have been traditionally used to illustrate relationships among taxa, although such two-dimensional diagrams do not capture all relationships from the original data matrix. Controversies have existed on which algorithms are best suited to construct dendrograms. Explicit phyletic (evolutionary), phenetic, and cladistic schools of quantitative classification have each offered methods for doing do, and each has made claims for capturing maximum information. Decisions on which type of data and algorithms to use depend upon the nature of the systematic and evolutionary questions being posed. Important is the need for detailed evolutionary investigations so that inferred relationships can be properly evaluated. Information theory, a separate discipline, is viewed as having high potential to enrich information content of biological classifications.
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P. Bernhardt, G.R. Camilo & P.H. Weston

Shaken vs scraped: floral presentation contributes to pollinator guild segregation in co-blooming Symphionema montanum and sopogon anemonifolius (Proteaceae) [Page 377 - Page 396]


Sympatric populations of Symphionema montanum R.Br. and Isopogon anemonifolius (Salisb.) Knight showed overlapping flowering periods during November 2009 in the Blue Mountains (New South Wales, Australia). Symphionema montanum has porose anthers encircling the protruding style, and lacks a pollen presenter. In contrast, sessile, longitudinally dehiscent anthers of Isopogon anemonifolius deposit pollen grains on the subterminus of the style (pollen presenter). Neither species secretes nectar. The majority of foragers on Symphionema montanum were polylectic, female bees (Halictidae). Their pollen foraging resembled sonication and shaking. Polylectic, female bees (Colletidae) were dominant foragers on Isopogon anemonifolius grasping styles with their mandibles while scraping the pollen presenter. Exoneura species (Apidae) visited both shrubs. Only two specimens of Callomelitta antipodes on Isopogon anemonifolius carried pollen of both shrub species. Most bees, collected on either shrub, carried the grains of their host mixed with one to six pollen morphotypes of co-blooming, nectariferous taxa. We report a positive correlation between an increase in bee size and the number of morphotypes carried but colletids of Isopogon anemonifolius carried fewer morphotypes than halictids on Symphionema montanum.
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C.E. Jarvis

Georg Rumphius’ Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750) as a source of information on Indonesian plants for Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) – an Addendum [Page 397 - Page 399]


An Addendum, discussing Linnaeus’ generic names with particular reference to Rumphia, is provided to a recently published article.
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L.M.J. Chen, B.E.E. Duyfjes, Ali Ibrahim & W.J.J.O. de Wilde

Flora of Singapore precursors, 16: New records and notes on the plant diversity of Singapore [Page 401 - Page 406]


Due to ongoing work for the Flora of Singapore, a new family record for Singapore, the Stemonaceae, with one species, Stemona curtisii Hook.f., is recorded. In addition, Ammannia crassicaulis Guill. & Perr. in the Lythraceae is newly recorded as naturalising in Singapore. Notes on two rare species, Hernandia nymphaeifolia (C.Presl) Kubitzki in the Hernandiaceae and Securidaca philippinensis Chodat in the Polygalaceae, currently being revised for the Flora of Singapore are presented.
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W.W. Seah, S.M.X. Hung & K.Y. Chong

Flora of Singapore precursors, 17: Clarification of some names in the genus Calophyllum as known in Singapore [Page 407 - Page 411]


The species, Calophyllum soulattri, is found to have been wrongly included in Singapore’s native flora. The name Calophyllum wallichianum var. wallichianum is also found to have been misapplied to a taxon in Singapore and should rather be called Calophyllum rufigemmatum. The nomenclatural history and problems of both taxa are discussed in this paper.
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I.M. Ardaka & W.H. Ardi

A new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from the Moluccas, Indonesia [Page 415 - Page 419]


A new species of Begonia, Begonia mufidahkallae Ardaka & Ardi, is described from Sawai, Seram Utara District, Seram Island, Indonesia. The species is endemic to Seram Island and belongs to Begonia section Petermannia.

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M.B. Atmaja & I.G. Tirta

Notes on the orchids of Bali, Indonesia: six new species records [Page 421 - Page 427]


Six species of orchids are reported as new records for Bali. Two of the species were found to be growing wild in Bali Botanic Garden, which was formerly a part of the Batukahu Nature Reserve, while the rest were collected from other forests in Bali. The six newly recorded species are Bulbophyllum apodum Hook.f., Ceratostylis longipedunculata J.J.Sm., Dendrobium arcuatum J.J.Sm., Dendrobium connatum (Blume) Lindl., Habenaria reflexa Blume and Taeniophyllum hirtum Blume. Brief descriptions and photographs are provided.
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M.J.C. Arshed, E.M. Agoo & M. Rodda

The identity of Marsdenia parasita (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) [Page 429 - Page 433]


A neotype is designated for Marsdenia parasita Blanco and lectotypes are designated for its synonyms Dischidiopsis philippinensis Schltr. and Conchophyllum merrillii Schltr. ex Merr. The new combination, Dischidia parasita (Blanco) Arshed, Agoo & Rodda is proposed. We explain why a specimen collected by Llanos and identified by him as Marsdenia parasita is not original material and thus cannot serve as a lectotype. Moreover, this gathering belongs to a different species, Dischidia vidalii Becc. Dischidia bulacanensis Kloppenb. et al.
is here treated as a synonym of D. parasita.
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M.A.K. Naive, J.A.G.P. Dalisay, E.P.T. Maglangit, G.C. Café & O.M. Nuňeza

Free radical scavenging effects of the Philippine endemic medicinal plant Alpinia elegans (Zingiberaceae) [Page 435 - Page 444]


Alpinia elegans (C.Presl) K.Schum. is an endemic Philippine medicinal plant used in the treatment of various conditions such as muscoloskeletal diseases, hemoptysis, headache, migraine, stomach ache, and as an anti-relapse for women. The major phytochemical constituents of the ethanolic extract from the leaves of Alpinia elegans were screened and their antioxidant activity was evaluated using an in vitro 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging (antioxidant) activity assay. Flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic glycosides were found to be present in the ethanolic leaf extract of Alpinia elegans, while anthraquinone was not detected. High DPPH radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity was observed in the ethanolic leaf extract of Alpinia elegans with a percentage DPPH inhibition of 95.11±1.00 at 500 μg/ml. The present study suggests that the leaf extract is a source of medicinal or pharmaceutical antioxidants. Information derived herein provides a preliminary scientific basis for the existing ethnobotanical knowledge of local
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R.V.A. Docot, N.P. Mendez & C.B.M. Domingo

A new species of Hornstedtia and a new species record of Globba (Zingiberaceae) from Palawan, Philippines [Page 445 - Page 457]


During recent botanical exploration in the province of Palawan, Philippines specimens were collected of a new species, Hornstedtia crispata Docot, and a new species record for the Philippines, Globba francisci Ridl., both from the ginger family Zingiberaceae. The new species is described and illustrated here along with an assessment of its conservation status.
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R.V.A. Docot, K.D. Gutierrez, R.E.E. Mamalias, N.B.R. Espino, A.A.B. Java, C.D. Dineros & E.M.L. Mijares

Two new Zingiber species (Zingiberaceae) from Sorsogon, Philippines [Page 459 - Page 475]


Two new species of gingers (Zingiberaceae), Zingiber aguingayae Docot and Z. subroseum Docot, are described and illustrated here based on recent collections from Mount Bulusan, Sorsogon, Philippines. Our rediscovery of the poorly known Zingiber bulusanense Elmer at the same locality not only allowed us to clarify its identity but also gave us stronger assurance that the two new species are indeed undescribed. Evidence from morphological and molecular data using the ITS region supported the placement of both new species and Zingiber bulusanense within Zingiber sect. Zingiber. The conservation status of the two new species were also assessed.
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J.D. Mood, †J.F. Veldkamp, T. Mandáková, L.M. Prince & H.J. de Boer

Three new species of Boesenbergia (Zingiberaceae) from Thailand and Lao P.D.R. [Page 477 - Page 498]


Boesenbergia bella Mood & L.M.Prince, B. phengklaii Mood & Suksathan, and B. putiana Mood & L.M.Prince are described with photographs and a comparative table. The description of Boesenbergia petiolata Sirirugsa is revised to include morphology not previously noted. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the relevant taxa using plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data are provided.
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O. Theanphong, T. Jenjittikul & W. Mingvanish

Essential oils composition of nine Curcuma species from Thailand: a chemotaxonomic approach [Page 499 - Page 518]


The chemical composition of the essential oils from fresh rhizomes of nine Curcuma L. species was investigated using the GC-MS technique. A total of 136 compounds,representing 97.19–99.11% of the total content of the essential oils, were identified. A dendrogram obtained from the cluster analysis based on their chemical composition was divided into two main clusters. The first cluster, with a high content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (e.g. β-curcumene) and oxygenated sesquiterpene (e.g. xanthorrhizol) was composed of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep., C. larsenii Maknoi & Jenjitt., C. sparganiifolia Gagnep. and C. harmandii Gagnep. The second cluster was subdivided into two groups, IIA and IIB. Group IIA with a high content of monoterpene hydrocarbons (e.g. camphene), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (e.g. a-copaene), caryophyllene, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (e.g. caryophyllene oxide), comprised Curcuma parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota Sirirugsa &
M.F.Newman. The other, IIB, with a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (e.g. camphor) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (e.g. germacrone), included Curcuma rubrobracteata Škorničk. et al., C. angustifolia Roxb. and C. singularis Gagnep.
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M. Murugesan, A.A. Mao, L.R. Meitei & S.S. Kambale

Ceropegia khasiana (Apocynaceae: Ceropegieae), a new species from Meghalaya, Northeast India [Page 519 - Page 525]


A new species of Ceropegia, Ceropegia khasiana Murug., A.A.Mao, Meitei & Kambale (Apocynaceae), is described and illustrated from Meghalaya, Northeast India. The new species is superficially similar to Ceropegia macrantha Wight but it differs in having fewer, shorter fascicled roots up to 8 cm long, linear-lanceolate leaves with long acuminate apices, smaller flowers up to 4.7 cm long, 12–18-flowered inflorescences with two flowers open at a time, two umbels per node, corolla tube pinkish outside with dark reddish stripes, reddish inside in mature flowers, greenish or pinkish to reddish at the apex of corolla lobes which are densely ciliate hairy, inflated base with reddish patch at middle, outer corona with very sparse small ciliate hairs, and each pair of follicular mericarps unequal in length.
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