Year of Publication: 1998, Vol. 50 (01)

Date Published 31 July 1998
Hay, A.
A new species of Aglaonema Schott (Araceae) from Terengganu, Malaysia [Page 1 - 4]
Aglaonema flemingianum is described as new from Terengganu State in Peninsular Malaysia. The new species is illustrated and fitted into a previously published key to the species of Aglaonema.

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Zhu Hua, Wang Hong and Li Baogui
The structure, species composition and diversity of the limestone vegetation in Xishuangbanna, SW China [Page 5 - 30]
The limestone vegetation in Xishuangbanna, tropical southwest China, includes three main vegetation tvpes, six formations, and nine communities, which are described in detail with enumerations of forest profiles and species composition.  Species diversity is discussed based on Shannon-Wiener's indexes for each forest formation. Comparison between the limestone seasonal rain forests and the ones on non-limestone reveals that the limestone community diversity than the rain forest on non-limestone.

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Kiew, R. and P. van Welzen
Codiaeum variegatum var. cavernicola var. nov. (Euphorbiaceae), the second Codiaeum from Borneo [Page 31 - 34]
Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume var. cavernicola, a cave dwelling shrub, is described from two limestone hills (Dulong Lambu and Madai) in Sabah, Malaysia.

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Turner, I.M.
Nomenclatural changes for four Malayan species in Phrynium (Marantaceae), Solanun (Solanaceae). Stachyphrynium (Marantaceae) and Boesenbergia (Zingiberaceae) [Page 39 - 41]
A new name is provided to substitute for a later homonym in Marantaceae. Phrynium venustum I.M. Turner, nom. nov., replaces Phrynium gracile Holttum. Solanum maingayi Kuntze (Solanaceae) is shown to be the correct name for what has generally been referred to as Solanum sarmentosum Nees. Stachyphrynium cylindricum K. Schum. (Marantaceae) and Boesenbergia flaxa Holtlum (Zingiberaceae) have to be considered new names because they were published as new combinations based on later homonyms. These illegitimate names, Phrynium cylindricum Ridl. and Gastrochilus flavus Ridl., are lectotypified.

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Reza Azmi and R. Kiew
Begonia lazat (Begoniaceae), a new culinary begonia from Borneo. [Page 43 - 48]
A striking new large-fruited begonia is described from the floodplain forest in the lower reaches of the Kinabatangan River, Sabah. Although rare, this begonia is known by some older local residents as a culinary delicacy when eaten with prawns and chilli.

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Tan, B.C.
The types and original specimens of published names of mosses preserved in the Herbarium of Singapore Botanic Gardens (SING) [Page 49 - 57]
A total of 51 types and original specimens of published names of mosses, mostly collected from West Malesia, are preserved at the herbarium of Singapore Botanic Gardens (SING). Information about the locality, collector and collector's number, date of collection, nomenclatural status, and the currently accepted name, for each of the types and original specimens are presented.

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Turner, I.M., C.M. Boo, L.M..J. Chen, J.P.S. Choo, A. Latiff and A. Zainudin Ismail
The botany of the islands of Mersing District, Johore. Peninsular Malaysia. 2. The floras of Pulau Aur and Pulau Pemanggil, with notes on the smaller islands. [Page 59 - 81]
All the records for vascular plants found growing on Pulau Aur, its small neighbour Pulau Dayang, and Pulau Pemanggil, islands in the Mersing District of Johore, Peninsular Malaysia are collated and listed. Notes on the botany of some of the smaller islands in vicinity are also presented. A tolal of more than 180 species are listed for Pulau Aur.  It is notable as the only Malaysian locality for the rubiaceous tree Zuccarinia macrophvlla. Other rare species recorded from the island include Selaginella plana (Selaginellaceae). Operculina riedeliana (Convolvulaceae), Thrixspermum carinatifolium (Orchidaceae). Rauvolfia sumatrana (Apocynaceae). Canarium hirsutum (Burseraceae) and Hymenodictyon orixense (Rubiaceae). A list of the 172 vascular plant species recorded as growing on Pulau Pemanggil is presented. Notable collections include Lasianthus barhellatus (Rubiaceae). Didymocarpus tiumanicus (Gesneriaceae). Mallotus moritzianus (Euphorbiaceae) and Margaritaria indica (Euphorbiaceae). Pulau Sibu is relatively well-known botanically. Details of some recent collections from Pulau Besar are given.  Pulau Tengah is notable for records of Argusia argentea (Boraginaceae) and Schizachyrium sanguineum (Gramineae).

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Lim Chong Keat
Unravelling Pinanga patula (Palmae) sensu Scheffer, Beccari and Ridley non Blume [Page 83 - 98]
Preparatory to a revision of the genus Pinanga Blume as found in Peninsular Malaysia, three taxa hitherto related to P. patula Blume by Scheffer, Beccari, and Ridley are discussed in the light of uncertainties pertaining to Blume's species. The paper presents fresh nomenclatural notes on P. riparia Ridley, and describes P. auriculata Becc. var. merguensis Becc. as a new combination, and a new variety, P. auriculata Becc. var leucocarpa.

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Lim Chong Keat
Four New Pinanga Blume (Palmae) Species from Peninsular Malaysia [Page 99 - 114]
Four Pinanga species, all from Johor, are described.- P. jamariensis, P. johorensis, P. palustris and P. pantiensis.

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Turner, I.M. and M.R. Cheek
Some New Eastern Gingers - a Paper by H.N. Ridley Containing Descriptions of Four Species Overlooked since their Publication in 1900 [Page 115 - 119]
Attention is drawn to four Malesian species of ginger (Alpinia pectinata, Alpinia celebica, Amomum terminale and Tapeinochilos koordersianus) validly published by H.N. Ridley in 1900 that do not appear in Index Kewensis. We lectotypify Alpinia pectinata Ridl., a new synonym of Alpinia eremochlamys K. Schum. Alpinia celebica Ridl. pre-dates Schumann's use of the same combination.

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Year of Publication: 1997, Vol. 49 (01)

Date Published 10 May 1998
Turner, I.M., H.T.W. Tan, E.E.L. Seah, A.H.B. Loo and Ali Ibrahim
Additions to the flora of Singapore, III [Page 1 - 5]
Eleven species are added to the flora of Singapore as presented by Turner (1993).  Lecanopteris sinuosa (Polypodiaceae) was mistakenly omitted from that list.  Records of Dischidia complex (Asclepdiaceae), Grenacheria fulva (Myrsinaceae) and Microcos globulifera (Tiliaceae) were also overlooked.  Mangifera paludosa (Anacardiaceae) has recently been described from a pre-War Singapore collection.  Combretum tetralophum (Combretaceae), Korthalsia flagellaris (Palmae), Pouteria linggensis (Sapotaceae) and Sindora coriacea (Legiminosae) are native species that have newly been collected for the first time in Singapore.  The successful naturalization of Justicia procumbens (Acanthaceae) and Macroptilium atropurpureum (Leguminosae) is reported.

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Teo, S.P.
Root hemi-parasitism in Malayan Olacaceae [Page 7 - 13]
Six species of Olacaceae found in the Malay Peninsula were investigated for parasitism.  Root parasitism was observed only in Olax psittacorum and Ximenia americana var. americana but not in Strombosia javanica, Scorodocarpus borneensis, Ochanostachys amentacea and Erythropalum scandens.  Haustoria of the two parasitic species were found attached to a number of hosts indicating that they are non-host specific.  Anatomy of the haustoria revealed that the suckers of the haustoria form a cup-like structure around the stelar region of the host roots.

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Tan, T.T.W., M.F. Choong, K.S. Chua, A.H.B. Loo, Hj. Samsuri Hj. Ahmad, E.E.L. Seah, I.M. Turner and J.W.H. Yong
A botanical survey of Sungei Buloh Nature Park, Singapore [Page 15 - 35]
A total of 249 wild vascular plant species (15 ferns, 1 gymnosperm, 233 angiosperms) were collected on a succession of trips between 1991 and 1993 to the Sungei Buloh Nature Park.  The current flora includes mangrove and beach or coastal forest species but the majority are early successionals, native and exotic weeds and species associated with cultivation. Earlier collections from the Herbarium, Singapore Botanic Gardens, dating from the late 1880s to early 1900s were also included and these totalled 76 (1 club moss, 7 ferns and 68 angiosperms).  The original flora was very different and consisted mainly of lowland, or beach or coastal forest, and mangrove species.  The great change in species composition and the high number of weedy species in the current flora reflect major man-made changes to the environment.  Combining both historical and recent collections, the wild vascular plant flora of Sungei Buloh Nature Park totals 318 species (1 club moss, 21 ferns, 1 gymnosperm and 295 angiopserms).

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Kiew, R., S. Madhavan and Hamsah Selamat
Baccaurea scortechinii distinct from B. parviflora (Euphorbiaceae) [Page 37 - 47]
Baccaurea scortechinii Hook.f. is a species distinct from B. parviflora (Mull. Arg.) Mull. Arg. recognised by a combination of the following characters: greater number of pairs of veins, proportionately wider leaf, shorter male and female inflorescences, position of the female inflorescence on the upper part of the trunk or on the branches, short pedicel of male flowers, longer sepals of the female flower, which are hoary outside, the rosy pink, obovoid ridged fruit (often with a wrinkled surface), which has a thick pericarp and up to six seeds.

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Ali Ibrahim, P.T. Chew, Hj. Sidek Kiah and Joseph T.K. Lai
New records of plant species from Singapore [Page 49 - 54]
Most notable among the 28 new records of flowering plant species from Singapore are the first record of Mukia maderaspatana (Cucurbitaceae) for both Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia, the first record for several genera - Chonemorpha, Ichnocarpus and Kibatalia (Apocynaceae), Gymnanthera (Asclepiadaceae) and Scaphochlamys (Zingiberaceae) and  the two dipterocarps, Dipterocarpus elongatus and Shorea ochrophloia.

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Lim, S.P. and R. Kiew
Gazetteer of limestone localities in Sabah, Borneo [Page 111 - 118]
A map of the 59 limestone localities in the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo, is presented together with a table with their co-ordinates, accepted name and the forest area in which they occur.

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Turner, I.M. and J.W.H. Yong
The botany of the islands of Mersing District, Johore. Peninsular Malaysia.  1. The plants and vegetation of Pulau Tinggi [Page 119 - 141]
A list of the vascular plant species found on Pulau Tinggi in the district of Mersing, Johore, Peninsular Malaysia is presented. This has been prepared from herbarium collections in Malaysia and Singapore and covers more than 500 species. A brief outline of the vegetation type are given. Pulau Tinggi is mostly covered with lowland dipterocarp forest. The island has good examples of several coastal vegetation types which include the presence of a number of rare seashore species including Argusia argentea, Manilkara kauki, Pouteris linggensis and Serianthes grandiflora.

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Year of Publication: 1996, Vol. 48 (01 & 02)

Date Published 28 February 1998
Lim, C. K.
Unravelling Iguanura BL. (Palmae) in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 1 - 64]
Based on over four years of field studies, a revision of the palm genus Iguanura Bl. in Peninsular Malaysia is presented, listing 16 taxa including seven new species and one new variety.

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LaFrankie, J. V.
Distribution and abundance of Malayan trees: significance of family characteristics for conservation [Page 75 - 87]
Taxonomic families of plants that characterize the lowland Malayan rain forest differ from one another nearly ten-fold in quantitative meaures of distribution and abundance. A 50-ha sample of 300,000 trees includes 814 species or fully one-fourth of the Malayan tree-flora. The median adult population size of trees and shrubs is a linear function of area. From the Pasoh equations, we can calculate the area needed to capture an adult population of a specific size for a particular fraction of the flora, i.e. for 90% of the Pasoh tree flora to be represented by more than 200 adults per species will require about 3000 ha of forest. These equations indicate how many species will have a specific population size within a forest, but not which species. I test the alternative hypothesis that the large characteristic families of the Malayan forest either do or do not differ more than 10-fold in median species abundance and species representation. The Pasoh data reject the latter hypothesis. The characteristics taxonomic families of the lowland forest, eg. Dipterocarpaceae. Sapotaceae and Burserace vary in representation from 10% of regional species to 60%, the power functions of species - area curves vary nearly 10-fold, and medianabundances vary from less than 1 to more than 10 individuals per ha. These flndings are confirmed in part from an analysis of the flora ot Singapore which, with regard to representation, illustrates patterns identical to those at Pasoh. The consequences for conservation are two-fold: (1) general conservation strategies should not be based on studies of focal families; (2) different taxonomic families of trees and shrubs will require very different strategies of reserve design for their conservation.

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Sanderson. F.R., Fong, Y.K., Saiful Anuar, M.S., Yik, C.P., and Ong, K.H.
A Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum ) of Angsana (Pterocarpus indicus) in Singapore  [Page 89 - 127]
The Angsana wilt disease affecting Pterocarpus indicus in Singapore and caused by Fusarium oxysporum was first reported in Malacca in 1870. Following several outbreaks in various parts ot the Peninsular Malaysia the disease was recorded in Singapore in 1914 and by 1919 many of Singapore's Angsanas had either been killed by the disease was recorded in Singapore in 1914 and by 1919 many of Singapore's Angsanas had either been killed by the disease or removed to prevent its further spread. Sporadic occurrences of the disease occurred around Singapore between1970 and 1982 resulting in a rapid investigation of the disease and the implementation of control measures. Between 1980 and 1992, more than 800 Angsanas were removed as a consequence of the disease. Although both F. oxysporum , and F. solani were consistently isolated from infected trees only F. oxysporum proved to be pathogenic in inoculation experiments. During a 10 month period, 170 Angsana trees were inpected because they had symptons similar to the Angsana wilt disease. Of the 170 trees, 86% (147) were infested with F. oxysporum were the result of lightning strikes. Of the 147 infected trees, 90% had also been struck be lightning and 87% had both lightning and ambrosia beetle infestations. The remaining 15 trees (10%) which were not struck bv lightning were at secondary infection sites where an adjacent Angsana had already been removed because it was infected with F. oxysporum.  
The hypothesis presented here for the life cycle of the Angsana wilt disease is that lightning damage to an Angsana. provides the stress which attracts the ambrosia beetles. If these beetles are contaminated with F. oxysporum spores , then infection is likely to follow. The secondary spread away from this primary infection site, is by F. oxysporum which has entered the soil from the infected tree. Short term control startegies are discussed which include the rapid removal of all lightning damaged trees and the use of insecticides and fungcidies either sprayed or injected to prevent the establishment of new infection sites.; Long term control is anticipated following screening of Angsanas collected from a wide geographical area, and selection of resistence to F. oxysporum
Key Words: Ambrosia beetles; Angsana; Angsana wilt; Fusarium oxysporum ; Fusarium wilt; injection; lightning; Platypus parallelus; Pterocarpus indicus ; resistence.

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Turner, I.M., Boo, C.M., Wong, Y.K., Chew, P.T. and Ali Ibrahim
Freshwater swamp forest in Singapore, with particular reference to that found around the Nee Soon Firing Ranges [Page 129 - 157]
The freshwater swamp forest found around the firing ranges at Nee Soon is the last remaining area of this forest formation in Singapore. The vascular plant flora of freshwater swamp forest in Singapore is reviewed, with particular reference to the Nee Soon forest. Some preliminary soil, water and foliar analyses indicate that the swamp forest at Nee Soon may have considerably higher amounts of phosphorous available to the vegetation than the dryland forest of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. Nitrogen and Potassium availabilities appear to be similar at the two sites. The Nee Soon swamp forest is an extremely important site tor Singapore's native biota and should receive the highest priority for conservation.

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 Zulkifli, M., Latiff, A., Bidin. A.A. and Jaman, R.
A preliminary survey of ferns and fern-allies of Gunung Kajang area, Pulau Tioman. [Page 159 - 188]
A total of 149 specimens of ferns and fem-allies were collected during two trips to Gunung Kajang, Pulau Tioman. They were identified 24 families, 59 genera, 95, 1 subspecies and 11 varieties, excluding 2 species whose identity were uncertain. Asplenium contnbutes the largest number among genera, with 9 species, followed by Selaginella (6 species) and Selliguea (4 species) and 39 species were identified as new records to Pulau Tioman fern flora.

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Faridah-Hanum, I.
Morphological variation of Pangium edule Reinw. Fruits in Malaysia. [Page 189 - 194]
Morphological variation of fruits and seeds occurring in Pangium edule is described. The fruits of typical form, "kepayang lenga" are oblong with blunt apices, those of "kepayang papan" are subglobular and the apices are sharp while those of "kepayang bubur" are ellipsoidal and the apices are blunt. Seeds differ in their sizes too. 

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Latiff, A., Natrah Mohamad and Zainudin Ibrahim, A.
Ternstroemia magnifica Stapf ex Ridley (Theaceae) and Kibatalia macrophylla (Pierre) Woodson (Apocynaceae), two species new to Peninsular Malaysia [Page 195 - 200]
Recent collections of Ternstroemia magnifica Stapf ex Ridley (Theaceae) and Kibatalia macrophylla (Pierre) Woodson (Apocynaceae) were made in Bangi Permanent Forest Reserve, Selangor, and Langkawi Islands, Kedah, respectively, representing new records for the flora of Peninsular Malaysia. Diagnostic descriptions and keys to species are presented with some morphological notes.

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Chantaranothai, P.
A new species of Barringtonia (Lecythidaceae) from Peninsular Malaysia [Page 201 - 202]
A new species, of Barringtonia, B. terengganuensis P. Chantaranothai, is described and illustrated from Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia.

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Khatoon, S.
Ontogenetic basis of polyad symmetry in Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. [Page 203 - 206]
Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. bears more or less radially symmetric polyad. The polyad is formed by eight equal sized, decussate tetrads, thus consisting of 32 pollen grains. In the present work, the ontogeny of the polyad is studied and the results show that the symmetry of the polyad is effected by the fact that the premeiotic nuclear divisions in the sporogenous cell precede cell-wall formation.

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Theilade, I.
Revision of the genus Zingiber in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 207 - 236]
Zingiber (Boehm.) comprises nineteen species in Peninsular Malaysia. Seventeen of these are included in the section Zingiber while two belong to the section Cryptanthium Horan. A new species., Z. fraser i, from Fraser's Hill in Pahang, and a new variety, Zingiber officinale var. rubrum , are described. The latter is widely used in Malay traditional medicine. A new combination Z. montana (Koenig) Theil. comb. nov. is proposed based on the rediscovery of some of Koenig's collections from Phuket. Z. griffithii var. citrinum Holtt., and the four vareties of Z. gracile Jack recognized by Holttum have been ranked as species. Key to the species and varieties are provided, as well as species descriptions, distribution and specimen citations. The taxa have as far as possible been typified.

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Year of Publication: 1995, Vol. 47 (02)

Date Published December 1995
Turner, I.M.
A Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya (Part 1 of 2) [Page 347 - 501]
An annotated check-list of the native and naturalized vascular plant species of Peninsular Malaysia and the Republic of Singapore is presented.  The catalogue includes important synonyms, a briet description and notes on the habitat and distribution of each species.

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Turner, I.M.
A Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya (Part 2 of 2) [Page 502 - 655]
An annotated check-list of the native and naturalized vascular plant species of Peninsular Malaysia and the Republic of Singapore is presented.  The catalogue includes important synonyms, a briet description and notes on the habitat and distribution of each species.

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Year of Publication: 1995, Vol. 47 (01)

Date Published June 1995
Turner, I.M.
Introductory Text [Page 1 - 5]
An annotated check-list of the native and naturalized vascular plant species of Peninsular Malaysia and the Republic of Singapore is presented. The catalogue includes important synonyms, a brief description and notes on the habitat and distribution of each species.

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Turner, I.M.
Conspectus of Families and Genera [Page 7 - 36]
The genera recorded as native or naturalized in Malaya are listed in alphabetical order under the appropriate family. Family delimitation follows Brummitt (1992). Italicized names represent those genera represented solely by naturalized species. The number in parentheses after each generic name represents the numbers of species of that genus in the Malayan flora.  The number of genera, and the number of species, respectively, in each family are given square brackets after each family name.

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