Year of Publication 2019, Vol. 71 (Supplement 1)

Date Published 29 May 2019
L. Chan & G.W.H. Davison

Introduction to the Comprehensive Biodiversity Survey of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, 2014–2018 [Page 3 - Page 17]

We introduce the Comprehensive Biodiversity Survey of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, for which planning began in 2014, field work was conducted largely in 2015–2016, and results analysed and written up in 2017–2018. The comprehensive survey is placed in the context of previous surveys in 1991–1992 and in 1992–1997. Bukit Timah is historically important and continues to be nationally and internationally significant for nature conservation.

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G.W.H. Davison & P.T. Chew

Historical review of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 19 - Page 40]

Biological interest in Bukit Timah, Singapore, long pre-dated its declaration as a forest reserve (1887) and nature reserve (1951). The administrative and land use changes affecting this fragment of coastal hill dipterocarp forest are described. Boundary changes have determined the areas now supporting primary, old secondary or maturing secondary forest, and account for many of the features described in an accompanying set of papers on the current biodiversity of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR). Research interest in the nature reserve continues to be high, with roughly 25 new research projects initiated each year.

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B.C. Ho, H.K. Lua, Bazilah Ibrahim, R.S.W. Yeo, P. Athen, P.K.F. Leong, Ali Ibrahim, S.L. Koh, Hassan Ibrahim, S. Lindsay, L.L. Chin, W.W. Seah & D.J. Middleton

The plant diversity in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 41 - Page 134]
The plant diversity of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR) is relatively well studied due to concerted effort over several decades, particularly as part of the worldwide system of ecological plots set up by the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS), now called the Forest Global Earth Observatory. Publications arising from previous works have set baseline data for the species diversity, suggested that the forest resilience was greater than would be expected in such a small forest fragment, but that there was low recruitment of primary forest tree species into the secondary forest. In order to assess the overall vascular plant diversity, and to compare the diversity of the various forest types within BTNR to each other, 52 plots were set up, each 20 × 5 m, along nine different transects that covered the full range of topography and forest types, primary, old secondary and maturing secondary forests, within the reserve. The vascular plant diversity within each plot was recorded. In total, 1250 species in 148 families were recorded, including an additional 167 species newly listed for BTNR. The primary forest had the highest number of species not found in the other forest types. It nevertheless had a very large overlap with species in the old secondary forest but not with the maturing secondary forest.
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S.M.L. Lee

Macro-fungal diversity of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 135 - Page 144]
The Bukit Timah Nature Reserve is an extremely important type locality for many species of macrofungi, especially for those collected by Edred John Henry Corner between 1929 and 1945 and later described by him. There has been little work done on the fungi of Singapore in recent years and much remains to be done. Current efforts to curate the fungal collection at Singapore Botanic Gardens are discussed, a new collecting programme is highlighted, and the very long way to go before we have a decent understanding of macrofungal diversity of Bukit Timah and the rest of Singapore is emphasised.
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R.C.H. Teo & N.J. Thomas

Updated Inventory of Amphibians, Reptiles and Mammals of the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 145 - Page 183]
A two-year survey at Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, found a high diversity of amphibian, reptile and mammal species. A total of 81 indigenous species was recorded – 18 amphibians, 40 reptiles and 23 mammals. The updated inventory comprises 115 species – 21 amphibians, 60 reptiles and 34 mammals ever historically recorded within the reserve.
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K.S. Lim

Birds of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 185 - Page 208]
A survey of birds in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR), Singapore, in 2015– 2016 yielded a cumulative total of 1663 individual sightings, amounting to 68 species. The total ever recorded for BTNR is now 146 bird species. The 68 species recorded in the present survey included four globally threatened, six globally near-threatened species, 14 nationally threatened and six nationally near-threatened species. Few of the species are entirely and strictly forest dependent, though many make use of both primary and disturbed forest environments.
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J.K.H. Koh & D.J. Court

Spider diversity in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 209 - Page 243]
This paper discusses the preliminary results of the first comprehensive survey of the spiders of the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR) in Singapore. Two plots were established in each of the three zones of vegetation, viz., primary forest, old secondary forest, and maturing secondary forest. They were repeatedly sampled over an 18-month period. Sorting of the collection so far suggests that the three vegetation zones harbour rather different spider assemblages. Only ~9% of the total spider fauna recovered was shared by all three zones. The results have also yielded a preliminary picture of dominance, abundance and rarity. Although first intended to obtain a baseline for future quantitative analyses, the survey became a testing ground to modify and refine methodology so as to conduct future quantitative surveys with greater scientific rigour. Taxonomic work on the samples so far shows that the spiders in the BTNR span over 43 families, of which six families are listed for the first time in Singapore. The tally is summarised in an interim checklist of BTNR spiders. The checklist, with a total of 317 entries, shows that there are 158 described species of spiders in BTNR, of which 25 species are new records for Singapore. Another 159 morphospecies are provisionally recognised as distinct species, some of which may be new to science. Our observations during the survey have allowed us to provide a narrative of BTNR spider diversity against a backdrop of their microhabitat specialisation.
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J. S. Ascher, Z. W. W. Soh, B. M. Ho, R. Y. Y. Lee, A. Q. E. Leon, S. X. Chui1, J. J. L. Lai, J. X. Q. Lee, M.S. Foo, E. J. Y. Soh

Bees of the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and vicinity [Page 245 - Page 271]
As a unique coastal hill dipterocarp forest remnant in Singapore, Bukit Timah Nature Reserve is a key refuge for flowering plants, but little information has been available about its bee pollinators and their floral associations. Historical and recent surveys of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) at Bukit Timah and vicinity were compiled, yielding a total known fauna of four families, 23 genera, and 75 species (including unnamed morphospecies). Of these, 55 bee species, several known only from historical collections, have been recorded from the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR) itself, which is dominated by mature, shady forest with few apparent flowers along the trails. More bee species (61) have been recorded from nearby Dairy Farm Nature Park (DF), which has more open, sunnier secondary forest with more conspicuous floral resources. Sampling methods included net collecting and honey baiting along transects, malaise trapping within the forest, and observations at flowers. Accounts are provided for species of particular taxonomic or conservation interest, and two new provisional synonymies are indicated. Floral associations are summarised for 32 floral hosts from BTNR (only 10 plant species) and from DF (28 plant species, including 5 shared with BTNR). For all species known from BTNR and vicinity, earliest and most recent dates of capture for both this area and for Singapore as a whole are provided. Four eusocial stingless bee species formerly collected in Singapore but not recently recorded are considered to be nationally extinct. An additional few poorly known solitary bee species may also be nationally extinct. By contrast, solitary bee species new to Singapore continue to be discovered at BTNR, notably Megachile resin and leafcutter bees attracted to reintroduced Tiger Orchids in 2014 during a mass bloom. Despite high species richness of native angiosperms persisting at BTNR, especially in its core, few bee species and individuals were found in recent bee surveys, likely reflecting limited availability of floral resources in the shady forest understorey. However, additional bee species are likely to be found in BTNR if further sampling is done during infrequent mass bloom events and traps are deployed at canopy level.
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S.K. Khew & H. Tan

Butterflies of the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, and its vicinity [Page 273 - Page 292]
A survey of butterflies has been undertaken within the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR), Singapore, and in the adjacent well-vegetated areas that form a buffer to BTNR, namely Hindhede Park, Singapore Quarry and the Dairy Farm Nature Park. Sampling was mainly though observations and photographic records along the transects in BTNR, and through baiting (mainly at Dairy Farm). More butterfly species (85) were recorded from the buffer areas, which have more open, sunnier secondary forest with more conspicuous food sources for adult butterflies, than there were from BTNR (63). Despite the high plant species richness at BTNR, the butterfly diversity observed within the forest transects was rather low. The greater butterfly diversity at Dairy Farm Nature Park is attributable in part to higher abundance of nectar sources (flowering trees and bushes, including many non-native plants growing along the forest edge and along open trails and footpaths). However, there are likely to be more species within BTNR, such as in the tree canopy, that were beyond the sampling scope of this survey.
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Y. Cai, Y.P.Q. Nga & R.W.J. Ngiam

Diversity and Distribution of Dragonflies in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 293 - Page 316]
Biodiversity baselines were established for dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata) of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, based on quantitative and qualitative samplings. Surveys were conducted from December 2014 to February 2016. Hydrological, physicochemical parameters and habitats were analysed to understand the main drivers structuring the dragonfly community. A total of 829 odonate specimens were recorded during the quantitative sampling, comprising 36 species of 28 genera in 11 families. The species diversity in each of the six sampling sites was compared using the Shannon-Wiener Index (H’). Hierarchical clustering and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) indicated that three main groupings of sites existed, each with a distinct community of associated species. Further analysis by Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) on the relevant distance based on species composition at the six sampling sites, together with 21 environmental variables showed that these groups were significantly associated with respective environmental variables. An updated species list of Bukit Timah dragonflies is provided for future reference, with 55 species of 43 genera in 12 families. Disturbance and threats to the odonate fauna of the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve are identified and conservation management measures are discussed. 
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R. Karam & J.H. Chong

Moths of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 317 - Page 330]
The moth fauna of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, was studied using light trapping. Specimens and photographs were sorted into morphospecies including macro and micro moths. A total of 399 species has been found, of which nearly 200 have been identified to species level. Several are notably rare or otherwise of interest. The figures do not reach an asymptote, suggesting that the total moth fauna may be considerably greater. The nature reserve may be too small to yield statistically significant differences in the moth fauna between forest vegetation zones.
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M.K. Tan

Orthoptera species checklist of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve in the Zoological Reference Collection, Singapore [Page 331 - Page 338]
While work on Orthoptera in Singapore is not lacking, there is no species checklist for the species found within the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR). Here, a checklist of orthopterans in the reserve is given based on specimens deposited in the Zoological Reference Collection of the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum, Singapore. In total, 83 species, 30 from the suborder Caelifera (grasshoppers and relatives) and 53 from the suborder Ensifera (crickets, katydids, and relatives), are recorded from the reserve.
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L.F. Cheong

Estimating saproxylic beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) diversity in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, with a methodological and biological review [Page 339 - Page 368]
Approximately one third of all forest insect species worldwide depend directly or indirectly on dying or dead wood (i.e., they are saproxylic). They are a highly threatened ecological group but the status of many species remains undocumented. There is an urgent need to develop a better appreciation for the diversity and ecology of saproxylic insects so as to inform management strategies for conserving these organisms in tropical forests. Two of the historically better studied beetle groups, Cerambycidae and Buprestidae, are highlighted with a brief discussion of the methods for studying them and their ecology, and a systematic attempt  to survey these two beetle groups in the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, is described. From a comparison with the historical data, it is inferred that the decline of the saproxylic insect fauna must be happening at a rate that would certainly be considered alarming if only it were more widely noticed. Finally, the implications for overall conservation of the insect fauna and of the reserve are considered.
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P.Grootaert & M.S. Foo

The springtail catchers of the genus Neurigona (Insecta, Diptera, Dolichopodidae) in the primary forest of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 369 - Page 379]
Three species of Neurigona Rondani, 1856, are recorded from the primary  of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve in the centre of the city of Singapore. Neurigona squamifera Parent, 1935, originally described from Peninsular Malaysia, is a species common in Bukit Timah. Neurigona temasek sp. nov., the most common species, and Neurigona timahensis sp. nov., a very rare species, are described as new for science. Gross morphology images are provided as well as illustrations of the male terminalia. A key is given to the five species hitherto known from Singapore.
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F. Seow-Choen I. Seow-En, E.K. Chua & M.E. Choo

A Survey of Stick-Insects in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 381 - Page 389]
A survey of stick insects in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve was conducted as part of a broader biodiversity survey which covered the period from 1 April 2014 to 30 April 2018. Bushes and trees by the sides of the trails in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve were searched with hand-torches after dusk. Of the 16 species known from historical records to occur in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, 11 species were found during the current survey. Five species that were not encountered are known to be rare. However, this does not exclude the possibility of their continued occurrence in the nature reserve. Rare phasmids are rare due mainly to scarcity of food plants and their habitat must be maintained if a wide array of biodiversity is to be conserved.
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J. K. I. Ho, M.S. Foo, D. Yeo, R. Meier

The other 99%: exploring the arthropod species diversity of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 391 - Page 417]
Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR) is one of Singapore’s most important conservation areas because it is likely to be the last refuge for many species that belong to Singapore’s original forest biodiversity. We report here the results obtained from a first broad-scale survey of arthropods in BTNR. The focus was on insects because Singapore’s insect fauna remains largely unknown despite the fact that insects constitute much of the animal biomass and perform many ecologically important tasks. The survey relied on specimens collected with passive traps (e.g., Malaise traps) that were set along several transects in primary and different types of secondary forests. Specimens representing several thousand species were obtained. In order to process the specimens rapidly, we sorted them based on DNA sequences of the COI gene. Sequences for more than 9,000 specimens were obtained and the DNA data were used to group the specimens into putative species. Here, we compare the species numbers, composition, and species overlap between secondary and primary forests for “true bugs” (Hemiptera). Overall, the sequences belonged to more than 1850 insect species of which ca. 450 belonged to Hemiptera. A very large proportion of the “true bug” species are only represented by 1 or 2 specimens each and we find that BTNR’s species diversity is much higher than the diversity in mangroves and on the National University of Singapore (NUS) campus. We also report and illustrate some notable insect species found during the survey. They range from ship-timber beetles to beetle-flies mimicking leaf beetles and mantis-flies resembling praying mantises.
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K. Chatterjea

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve: a forest in transition [Page 419 - Page 440]
Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR), being virtually the only primary rain forest in Singapore, is of very high environmental importance. The forest is located amidst a highly developed residential area and is visited by large numbers of people who seek respite from urban stresses and are invigorated by the natural environment offered by the forest interiors. Trails within the forest are heavily frequented and are, therefore, under constant stress. Results of heavy usage are seen in extreme surface compaction and slope deterioration, which in turn affect the forest bio-physical environment. This paper covers research spanning over 13 years from 2004 (‘before forest closure’) to 2017 (‘after forest reopening’), tracks the degeneration of the forest under such severe patronage by visitors, and reports on changes in the Nature Reserve’s physical conditions during and after a period of closure for renovation of public facilities. Several factors of importance to the forest bio-physical environment, such as soil compaction, soil bulk density, soil surface organic matter status, and infiltration rates of surface soils were monitored during these 13 years and visible and measurable longitudinal changes are recorded. Significant improvements are seen in soil compaction values, organic matter content, and bulk density of the trail surface soils subsequent to the forest closure, indicating that the closure and the resultant natural regeneration of the forest has significantly improved the forest interior bio-physical environment. The success of this management strategy can be taken as evidence of good management procedure and can, therefore, set an example to follow in future to sustain the bio-physical status of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. 
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Y. Cai

Hydrogeomorphic characteristics of streams in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 441 - Page 490]
Field data and information from the literature on hydrology, hydraulic and geomorphic characteristics of the ten streams in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve were collected to form a baseline dataset with the aim of evaluating various functions that these streams perform, as well as the stresses and disturbances that they experience. Preliminary results show that majority of the channel reaches studied are functioning well, except that moderate to intense erosion was observed at the middle reaches of Lasia and Dairy Farm, and the lower reaches of Fern Valley and Wallace streams, where instability, undercutting and failure of banks have caused significant channelisation (bank widening and channel down-cutting). In general, the streams in Bukit Timah have little sediment, with low and small-sized bars visible only at the lower reaches of Fern Valley, Lasia and Wallace streams, which should not significantly affect the stream function if culverts and lined drains downstream are well maintained. However, several forced step-pools (artificial ponds) near the outlets of Taban, Seraya and Catchment streams and the middle of Jungle Fall stream continuously receive upstream sediments loads and accumulation of sediment with distinct siltation have obviously degraded the instream habitats. Follow-up actions on stream rehabilitation, adaptive management, future research and future monitoring are discussed. 
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C.T.T. Nguyen & Y. Cai

Physicochemical characteristics of streams in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 491 - Page 556]
Spatial and temporal surveys were conducted to better understand the physicochemical characteristics of the streams in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR). A total of 87 survey stations were selected along ten streams for an in-situ water quality study conducted in June 2018. Temporal investigation, including in-situ and ex-situ samplings, was conducted from late November 2017 to July 2018 for Fern Valley and Jungle Fall streams. The in-situ physicochemical parameters included pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Conductivity, Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Turbidity, Salinity, and Temperature. Water samples were collected for further analysis of Total Suspended Solids (TSS), anions, cations, elements, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP). Water discharge was calculated as stream crosssectional area multiplied by water velocity. Groundwater samples (down to maximum 2 m) were collected at upstream and downstream locations in Fern Valley and Jungle Fall catchments and analysed for water chemistry. Seventy-five soil samples (surface and subsurface) were collected to investigate the hydrogeomorphic conditions of the catchments in an attempt to understand the influence of hillslopes on water quality within the stream channel. Physicochemical baselines of the streams in Bukit Timah Hill were established, the data suggesting that stream temperature, TDS, salinity, the amount of TOC, TP, anions and cations vary within their expected natural ranges. Some parameters including DO and conductivity are slightly lower than expected, which may not be favorable for large aquatic animals. Some issues needing further investigations include low stream pH in Jungle Fall and Seraya streams as well as the significantly high concentration of Cd, Sb and Se in all streams.Follow-up actions are recommended to further investigate the drivers and monitor the effect of stream acidification, the causes and effects of high concentration of Cd, Sb and Se, as well as possible stream rehabilitation measures leading to improvement of water quality.
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T. Li, Y. X. Loh, W. Lim, M. Nyanasengeran, B. W. Low, H. H. Tan, D. C. J. Yeo & Y. Cai

The fish fauna of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 557 - Page 573]
Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR) holds the largest remnant patch of primary rainforest in Singapore and its hill streams supports many native and threatened freshwater fauna. As the last comprehensive survey of freshwater fishes in BTNR was published nearly two decades ago, a series of surveys was carried out at 12 streams permeating BTNR and the Singapore Quarry to update the status of the fishes. Of the 27 species documented, 16 are native to Singapore and 11 are introduced. Two native species known from other parts of the Central Catchment Nature Reserve are recorded for the first time in BTNR. Species distribution, richness and abundance have been qualitatively assessed in relation to habitat characteristics. Potential threats and mitigation measures are discussed, which are important in the formulation of conservation and management strategies to safeguard the current diversity of freshwater fishes, many of which are threatened in rapidly developing Singapore. 
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M. D. Y. Khoo, N. J. L. Tiong, T. Li1, W. Lim, D. J. J. Ng, M. Nyanasengeran, D. C. J. Yeo & Y. Cai

The freshwater decapod crustaceans of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 575 - Page 581]

Freshwater decapod crustaceans serve important ecological functions in tropical stream ecosystems. Stream surveys for decapod crustacean fauna were conducted between February 2015 and April 2016 at nine sites in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR). A total of eight species (four freshwater crab, three freshwater shrimp and one crayfish species) out of the nine species known from BTNR were recorded. In general, the species were recorded from sites matching environmental conditions previously known or reported for each species, with some crab species showing minor overlap in their spatial distributions. This highlights the importance of broad-based conservation efforts focusing on the entire stream network in BTNR rather than on specific/selected streams as the various species each appear to have largely unique habitat requirements. The updated information on freshwater decapod crustaceans in BTNR can be used to inform the formulation of conservation and management measures including the establishment of monitoring programs for the protection of our native and threatened aquatic fauna in BTNR.

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L. Chan & G.W.H. Davison

Synthesis of results from the Comprehensive Biodiversity Survey of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, with recommendations for management [Page 583 - Page 610]

Twenty-two papers arising from the Comprehensive Biodiversity Survey of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (BTNR), Singapore (2014–2018) have provided a thorough update and expansion of information on many groups of flora and fauna. In spite of the small size and isolation of BTNR there is still remarkable diversity, and new records and new species continue to accumulate. A large body of information on the terrestrial and aquatic physical environment is now available, providing a context for many of the biological results. Various management recommendations emerge.

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Year of Publication: 2018, Vol. 70 (2)

Date Published 14 December 2018
S.K. Ganesan & Ali Ibrahim

Shorea sumatrana (Dipterocarpaceae), a remarkable new addition to the flora of Singapore [Page 261 - Page 266]
Shorea sumatrana (Slooten ex Thorenaar) Symington ex Desch is newly recorded
for Singapore from remnant lowland dipterocarp forest in the Singapore Botanic Gardens’ Rain Forest. The species is described and illustrated, the name is lectotypified and notes on distribution, ecology and conservation status are given. This species is assessed as Critically Endangered for Singapore.

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W.W. Seah & K.M. Wong

Flora of Singapore precursors, 1. Gynochthodes praetermissa (Rubiaceae: Morindeae), a new West Malesian species, with notes on related taxa [Page 267 - Page 273]
Gynochthodes praetermissa is newly described for the flora of western Malesia. It most resembles Gynochthodes coriacea, with which it has been confused. They can be distinguished on various leaf attributes and by the new species having corolla lobes at most twice as long as the corolla tube, whereas Gynochthodes coriacea has corolla lobes at least three times as long as the tube. Gynochthodes coriacea and G. sublanceolata are found to be synonymous, the former having priority.

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K.M. Wong & H.K. Lua

Flora of Singapore precursors, 3. A new species of Canthium (Rubiaceae: Vanguerieae) previously confused with C. horridum [Page 261 - Page 266]
Canthium malayense K.M.Wong is described as a new species mainly occurring in the Malay Peninsula but also found in Sumatra and Borneo. It was previously confused with the Javanese Canthium horridum Blume. Differences in the morphology of the two species are discussed.

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I.M. Turner

Flora of Singapore precursors, 5. Some resolution of a long-standing problem in Psychotria (Rubiaceae) of Singapore [Page 283 - Page 288]
Owing to a mix-up by Wallich, there has been confusion over the application of three names in Psychotria based on collections made by William Jack, purportedly in Penang in 1819. As pointed out by Merrill, Psychotria malayana Jack is the same species as P. stipulacea Wall. and not P. aurantiaca Wall. The plants from Java that were referred by Blume to Psychotria aurantiaca were renamed P. valetonii by Hochreutiner. However, there is an earlier name available, Psychotria megacoma Miq. While specimens from Singapore that were referred to as Psychotria sp. 9 by Wong show some differences from much of the material from Java, the wide variation in material from Borneo leads to the decision to treat P. megacoma Miq. as the correct name for plants from Singapore, Sumatra, Java and Borneo. A secondstep lectotypification is made for Psychotria malayana Jack and lectotypes are designated for P. stipulacea Wall., P. megacoma Miq., Grumilea aurantiaca var. lutescens Miq. and G. aurantiaca var. subplumbea Miq.
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W.W. Seah & K.M. Wong

Flora of Singapore precursors, 7. A newly diagnosed species of Neonauclea (Rubiaceae: Naucleeae) now extinct in Singapore and notes on Neonauclea excelsa and N. calycina. [Page 289 - Page 294]
Neonauclea kranjiensis K.M.Wong & W.W.Seah, a newly diagnosed species from Singapore, is described. It most resembles Neonauclea excelsa (Blume) Merr. from which it differs in its smaller, narrowly elliptic leaves as well as smaller mature flowering heads. The taxa known as Neonauclea excelsa and N. calycina (DC.) Merr. in Java, Peninsular Malaysia and parts of Borneo are just one species to which the name Neonauclea excelsa must be applied. Neonauclea calycina continues to be recognised as a species in the Philippines pending further study.
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I.M. Turner, M. Rodda, K.M. Wong & D.J. Middleton

Flora of Singapore precursors, 9: The identities of two unplaced taxa based on types from Singapore [Page 295 - Page 299]

Work on the Gentianales for the Flora of Singapore has clarified the identities of two names based on types collected in Singapore that have long been considered of uncertain application. Dischidia wallichii Wight is shown to be a synonym of Micrechites serpyllifolius (Blume) Kosterm. (Apocynaceae) and Saprosma ridleyi King & Gamble is a synonym of Psychotria maingayi Hook.f. (Rubiaceae). A lectotype is designated for Dischidia wallichii.

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S.K. Ganesan

Flora of Singapore precursors, 10. Validation of Mangifera paludosa (Anacardiaceae) and notes on its distribution, ecology and conservation status in Singapore [Page 301 - Page 305]

The name Mangifera paludosa Kosterm. ex S.K.Ganesan is validated and described. Notes on distribution, ecology and conservation status are given.

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I.M. Turner, Y.W. Low, M. Rodda, K.M. Wong & D.J. Middleton

The plant taxa of H.N. Ridley, 5. The Gentianales [Page 307 - Page 395]
Henry Nicholas Ridley (1855–1956) described more than 450 taxa of Gentianales, mostly from Southeast Asia, and was the author of over 70 additional combinations in this order. A listing of these names with place of publication and the types of the Ridley basionyms is given here. Many names are lectotypified. The new combinations Chassalia pauciflora (Ridl.) I.M.Turner and Chassalia violascens (Ridl.) I.M.Turner are proposed for Cephaelis pauciflora Ridl. and Gartnera violascens Ridl. respecitively. Three names are newly reduced to synonymy: Cephaelis elongata Ridl. to Chassalia bracteata Ridl., Geophila matthewii Ridl. to Mussaenda uniflora Wall. ex G.Don and Psychotria setistipula Ridl. to Ixora patens Ridl.
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L.W. Cayzer & G.T. Chandler

Pittosporum ridleyi (Pittosporaceae), a new name for the ‘rusty-leaved’ pittosporum in Malaysia [Page 397 - Page 404]
The poorly understood ‘rusty-leaved’ pittosporum, Pittosporum ferrugineum W.T.Aiton has been comprehensively revised as part of the ongoing revision of the family Pittosporaceae across its range. Aiton’s Pittosporum ferrugineum s.s. has been found to be a different species to the species currently known as P. ferrugineum in the Malay Peninsula, Borneo and the Andaman Islands (India). Hence the common coastal species in these areas needs a new name and is presented here as Pittosporum ridleyi L.Cayzer & G.Chandler, a new name for an old species.
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S. Bandyopadhyay

Typification of Bauhinia touranensis (Leguminosae: Cercidoideae) [Page 405 - Page 407]
A second-step lectotype and an epitype are designated here for Bauhinia touranensis Gagnep., now Cheniella touranensis (Gagnep.) R.Clark & Mackinder.
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I.M. Turner

Annonaceae of the Asia-Pacific region: names, types and distributions [Page 409 - Page 744]
A list of the Annonaceae taxa indigenous to the Asia-Pacific Region (including Australia) is presented, including full synonymy and typification with an outline of the geographic distribution. Some 1100 species in 40 genera are listed. A number of nomenclatural changes are made. The species of Artabotrys from Java previously referred to as Artabotrys blumei Hook.f. & Thomson is described here as Artabotrys javanicus I.M.Turner, because A. blumei is shown to be the correct name for the Chinese species generally known as A. hongkongensis Hance. The type of Uvaria javana Dunal is a specimen of U. dulcis Dunal. The new combination Uvaria blumei (Boerl.) I.M.Turner based on U. javana var. blumei Boerl. is therefore proposed as the correct name for the species known for many years as U. javana. Other new combinations proposed are Fissistigma parvifolium (Craib) I.M.Turner, Friesodielsia borneensis var. sumatrana (Miq.) I.M.Turner, Sphaerocoryne touranensis (Bân) I.M.Turner and Uvaria kontumensis (Bân) I.M.Turner. The replacement name Sphaerocoryne astiae I.M.Turner is provided for Popowia gracilis Jovet-Ast. Melodorum fruticosum Lour. is reduced to a synonym of Uvaria siamensis (Scheff.) L.L.Zhou et al. Many new lectotypes and neotypes are designated.
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Year of Publication: 2018, Vol. 70 (1)

Date Published 24 May 2018
J. Chen, I.M. Turner, R.M.K. Saunders & D.C. Thomas

Artabotrys scortechinii (Annonaceae): an augmented species description and a new record for Singapore [Page 3 - Page 8]

Artabotrys scortechinii King was recently discovered as a new record for the native flora of Singapore. This poorly known species has been confused with Artabotrys maingayi Hook.f. & Thomson and its fruits and seeds have not been previously described. This paper presents an augmented description, including its fruit morphology and diagnostic floral characters, which distinguish it from its congeners. A key to the native Artabotrys R.Br. species in Singapore is provided.

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I.M. Turner

Notes on the genus Uncaria (Rubiaceae) in Singapore [Page 9 - Page 12]
Records for the presence of three hitherto overlooked species of Uncaria Schreb., U. borneensis Havil., U. canescens Korth. and U. elliptica R.Br. ex G.Don, in Singapore are presented. Recent collections of three other species, Uncaria acida (W.Hunter) Roxb., U. callophylla Blume ex Korth. and U. roxburghiana Korth., provide evidence of the continued existence of these species in Singapore that were thought to be extinct locally.
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D.J. Middleton, H.K. Lua & P.K.F. Leong

Micrechites lancifolia (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae), a new record for Singapore [Page 13 - Page 17]
Micrechites lancifolia (Hook.f.) D.J.Middleton & Livsh. is newly recorded for Singapore. A description and provisional conservation assessment are provided.
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S.K. Ganesan, H.K. Lua & Ali Ibrahim

Shorea johorensis (Dipterocarpaceae), an addition to the flora of Singapore [Page 19 - Page 23]
A new distributional record to Singapore of Shorea johorensis Foxw. (Dipterocarpaceae) is described and illustrated. This species is known from remnant lowland dipterocarp forest in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve, Singapore. Notes on distribution, ecology and conservation status are given. This species is assessed as critically endangered for Singapore.
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S.K. Ganesan, H.K. Lua & Ali Ibrahim

Melochia umbellata (Malvaceae subfam. Byttnerioideae), a new record for Singapore [Page 25 - Page 31]
A new distributional record to Singapore of Melochia umbellata (Houtt.) Stapf is described and illustrated. This name is lectotypified. Notes on distribution, ecology and
conservation status are given. This species is assessed as critically endangered for Singapore. A key is given for the two Melochia L. species occurring in Singapore.
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B.C. Ho, H.K. Lua, P.K.F. Leong, S. Lindsay, W.W. Seah, Bazilah Ibrahim, A.H.B. Loo, S.L. Koh, Ali Ibrahim & P. Athen

New records and rediscoveries of vascular plants in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore [Page 33 - Page 55]
Several new records of plant species previously unknown in Singapore are reported, along with records of species presumed to be nationally extinct which have been rediscovered. These reports are based on specimens collected during our recent surveys of the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve and previously unreported older specimens, all deposited in SING. Three species are reported as new records for Singapore: Scindapsus lucens Bogner & P.C.Boyce, Passiflora quadriglandulosa Rodschied and Tectaria nayarii Mazumdar. Scindapsus lucens is likely to be native and previously overlooked, whereas Passiflora quadriglandulosa and Tectaria nayarii are exotic species which have escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. Another 10 species are rediscoveries of taxa previously considered to be nationally extinct: Aglaia palembanica Miq., Bolbitis sinuata (C.Presl) Hennipman, Calamus ornatus Blume, Claoxylon longifolium (Blume) Endl. ex Hassk., Dapania racemosa Korth., Dioscorea kingii R.Knuth, Ficus rosulata C.C.Berg, Lasianthus reticulatus Blume, Ryparosa hullettii King and Senegalia kekapur (I.C.Nielsen) Maslin, Seigler & Ebinger.
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M.S. Khoo, S.C. Chua & S.K.Y. Lum

An annotated list of new records for Singapore: results from large-scale tree surveys at the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve [Page 57 - Page 65]
We report new records for Singapore of 16 tree species discovered between 1993 and 2008 during large-scale surveys of Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. These species are: Aglaia crassinervia Kurz ex Hiern (Meliaceae), Alphonsea johorensis J.Sinclair (Annonaceae), Dacryodes nervosa (H.J.Lam) Leenh. (Burseraceae), Dehaasia cuneata (Blume) Blume (Lauraceae), Drypetes crassipes Pax & K.Hoffm. (Putranjivaceae), Dysoxylum grande Hiern (Meliaceae), Endiandra maingayi Hook.f. (Lauraceae), Gluta malayana (Corner) Ding Hou (Anacardiaceae), Hopea ferruginea Parijs (Dipterocarpaceae), Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb.) Leenh. (Sapindaceae), Mangifera gracilipes Hook.f. (Anacardiaceae), Neoscortechinia philippinensis (Merr.) Welzen (Euphorbiaceae), Palaquium impressionervium Ng (Sapotaceae), Sindora echinocalyx Prain (Fabaceae), Terminalia citrina (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Combretaceae) and Vatica odorata (Griff.) Symington subsp. odorata (Dipterocarpaceae). Voucher specimens have been deposited in SING.
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R.C.J. Lim, S. Lindsay, D.J. Middleton, B.C. Ho, P.K.F. Leong, M.A. Niissalo, P.C. van Welzen, H.-J. Esser, S.K. Ganesan, H.K. Lua, D.M. Johnson, N.A. Murray, J. Leong-Škorničková, D.C. Thomas & Ali Ibrahim

New records and rediscoveries of plants in Singapore [Page 67 - Page 90]

The city-state of Singapore continues to provide many new records and rediscoveries of plant species in its nature reserves, offshore islands and secondary forests. Eleven new records for Singapore and eight rediscoveries of species previously presumed nationally extinct are reported here along with national conservation assessments. The new records are Albertisia crassa Forman, Arcangelisia flava (L.) Merr., Chaetocarpus castanocarpus (Roxb.) Thwaites, Dendrokingstonia nervosa (Hook.f. & Thomson) Rauschert, Dipterocarpus chartaceus Symington, Haplopteris sessilifrons (Miyam. & H.Ohba) S.Linds., Hewittia malabarica (L.) Suresh, Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir., Spermacoce parviceps (Ridl.) I.M.Turner, Sphaeropteris trichodesma (Scort.) R.M.Tryon and Uvaria micrantha (A.DC.) Hook.f. & Thomson. The rediscoveries are Callerya dasyphylla (Miq.) Schot, Cocculus orbiculatus (L.) DC., Lecananthus erubescens Jack, Loeseneriella macrantha (Korth.) A.C.Sm., Mapania squamata (Kurz) C.B.Clarke, Plagiostachys lateralis (Ridl.) Ridl., Scolopia macrophylla (Wight & Arn.) Clos and Spatholobus maingayi Prain ex King.

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L.M.J. Chen, B.C. Ho, L.M. Choo & S.L. Koh

Additions to the Flora of Singapore, new and overlooked records of naturalised plant species (1) [Page 91 - Page 101]
Nine species of plants that are casual or have become naturalised are newly recorded for Singapore. Six of these are weeds assumed to have only recently arrived in Singapore: Cuscuta campestris Yunck., Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D.Don, Decalobanthus peltatus (L.) A.R.Simões & Staples, Erigeron bellioides DC., Justicia comata (L.) Lam., Mecardonia procumbens (Mill.) Small. The remaining three have been in Singapore for some time but have been previously overlooked: Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss. ex Aubl.) C.F.Baker, Praxelis clematidea R.M.King & H.Rob and Spigelia anthelmia L.
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A.R. Rafidah, A.R. Ummul-Nazrah & M.A. Mohd Hairul

Exacum tenue (Gentianaceae), a new record from karst limestone in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 103 - Page 108]
The mycoheterotropic species, Exacum tenue (Blume) Klack. (Gentianaceae), was recently discovered on a limestone hill in Kelantan, Malaysia. A detailed description of the species together with a botanical drawing and colour photographs are provided.
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R. Kiew

One new species and two new records of Jasminum (Oleaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 109 - Page 118]
Jasminum ledangense Kiew is a new species restricted to Gunung Ledang, Johor and Jasminum carissoides Kerr and J. nervosum Lour. are new records for Malaysia. Jasminum carissoides is restricted to limestone in Kedah (Langkawi) and Perlis and also occurs in Peninsular Thailand, while a narrow-leaved form of J. nervosum is found on limestone in Kedah (Langkawi). Jasminum insularum Kerr is confirmed as a distinct species. It is extremely rare and known from just three specimens, the type from Peninsular Thailand, one from Kelantan and another from Pahang in Malaysia. Descriptions are provided for these species.
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S. Lindsay

Adiantum alleniae, a new species, and Adiantum siamense, a new record, for Peninsular Malaysia [Page 119 - Page 122]
A new fern species, Adiantum alleniae S.Linds., is described from Peninsular Malaysia and Adiantum siamense Tagawa & K.Iwats. is reported from Peninsular Malaysia for the first time.
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O. Popelka, M. Dančák, R.S. Sukri & F. Metali

Novitates Bruneienses, 10. Filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae) of Kuala Belalong, Brunei Darussalam [Page 123 - Page 154]
The filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae) of Kuala Belalong in Brunei Darussalam are enumerated along with morphological descriptions and short notes on ecology and distribution. Determination keys to each group are included. In total, 22 species belonging to 6 genera (Hymenophyllum Sm., Crepidomanes C.Presl, Didymoglossum Desv., Abrodictyum C.Presl, Cephalomanes C.Presl and Callistopteris Copel.) were identified in the field and in herbaria, the majority of them being epiphytic. Two of the species, namely Crepidomanes grande (Copel.) Ebihara & K.Iwats. and Didymoglossum motleyi (Bosch) Ebihara & K.Iwats., have not previously been recorded from Brunei Darussalam.
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R. Kiew, S. Julia, C.Y. Ling, A. Randi, D. Girmansyah & M. Hughes

Taxonomic status of Begonia promethea (sect. Petermannia, Begoniaceae) in Borneo [Page 155 - Page 161]
The rediscovery of Begonia promethea Ridl. for the first time since its description in 1906 led to the discovery that the later described B. beccarii Warb. is synonymous with it and that it belongs in Begonia sect. Petermannia. It is a rare, endangered species known only from three localities, two locations from the Kuching Division, Sarawak, Malaysia and another one from West Kalimantan, Indonesia. A detailed, illustrated description and a distribution map of Begonia promethea are provided. We suggest an IUCN conservation category of EN B2ab(iii). Lectotypes for both names are designated.
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D.C. Thomas, A. Bour & W.H. Ardi

Begonia of the Matarombeo karst, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, including two new species [Page 163 - Page 176]
Based on collections from the Matarombeo limestone mountain range in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, the two new species Begonia balgooyi D.C.Thomas & Ardi and B. matarombeoensis D.C.Thomas & Ardi are described and illustrated, and an amended description and a photo plate of B. watuwilensis Girm. are provided. These species are restricted to limestone habitats and endemic to Southeast Sulawesi. Provisional conservation assessments indicate an Endangered (EN) status for all three species.
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C.-W. Chen, S. Lindsay, C.M. Mynssen, L.-Y. Kuo, V.B. Amoroso & Y.-M.

A new Haplopteris species from the Philippines and clarification of the status of H. amboinensis [Page 177 - Page 190]
A new fern species from the Philippines, Haplopteris mindanaoensis S.Linds. & C.W.Chen, is described and illustrated based on the results of detailed morphological comparison and molecular phylogenetic analysis. Morphologically, Haplopteris mindanaoensisis characterised by having obovoid (rather than funnel-shaped) soral paraphyses and deep soral grooves with asymmetrical flaps. Analysis of a combined four gene (chlL, matK, ndhF, and trnL-F) plastid data set shows that: (1) the two included samples of Haplopteris mindanaoensis have the same distinct haplotype; (2) Haplopteris mindanaoensis diverges early within the clade where most species with marginal soral grooves are placed; and (3) Haplopteris heterophylla C.W.Chen, Y.H.Chang & Yea C.Liu, the only other Haplopteris C.Presl species known to have obovoid paraphyses, is not closely related to H. mindanaoensis. The status of Haplopteris amboinensis (Fée) X.C.Zhang in China and Indochina is also clarified and a new combination, H. ensata (Christ) C.W.Chen & S.Linds. is made.
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A. Retnowati

The species of Marasmiellus (Agaricales: Omphalotaceae) from Java and Bali [Page 191 - Page 258]
A total of 35 species of Marasmiellus Murrill belonging to five sections (DealbatiRameales, Marasmiellus, Stenophylloides, and Candidi) are described from Java and Bali. Sixteen taxa are described as new species: Marasmiellus bisporus Retn., M. cibodasensis Retn., M. cikanikiensis Retn., M. clavatus Retn., M. desjardinii Retn., M. diverticulatus Retn., M. haurbentesis Retn., M. javanicus Retn., M. longisiccus Retn., M. pipericola Retn., M. pruinosus Retn., M. reniformis Retn., M. rifaii Retn., M. subglobosus Retn., M. tamblinganensis Retn. and M. zingibericola Retn. Two new combinations are made: M. nugatorius (Corner) Retn. and M. pangerangensis (Henn.) Retn. Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations, and comparisons with similar taxa are presented. Eight names are lectotypified.
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Nigel P. Taylor

BOOK REVIEW [Page 259 - Page 259]
Book Review:
Tropical Forest Scientist. Francis S.P. Ng and FRIM 1964–1991.
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Year of Publication 2018, Vol. 70 (Supplement 1)

Date Published 20 March 2018
G.W.H. Davison, Y. Cai, T.J. Li & W.H. Lim
Integrated research, conservation and management of Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest, Singapore: hydrology and biodiversity [Page 1 - Page 7]

The current paper acts as an introduction to nine following papers concerning the hydrology and biodiversity of Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest. Freshwater swamp forest is a threatened and overlooked ecosystem in the Southeast Asian region and in Singapore. Characterised by predominantly mineral soils supporting forest that contains a subset of flora  and fauna of lowland forest, but with the addition of important habitat specialists, freshwater swamp forest is fed by an array of hydrological processes. As conservation management depends on good hydrological and biological understanding, a research programme was designed to tease out the roles of the various hydrological components. The background, management concerns, and aims of the project are detailed.

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E. Clews, R.T. Corlett, J.K.I. Ho, D.E. Kim, C.Y. Koh, S.Y. Liong, R. Meier, A. Memory, S.J. Ramchunder, T.M. Sin, H.J.M.P. Siow, Y. Sun, H.H. Tan, S.Y.Tan, H.T.W. Tan, M.T.Y. Theng, R.J. Wasson, D.C.J. Yeo & A.D. Ziegler
The biological, ecological and conservation significance of freshwater swamp forest in Singapore [Page 9 - Page 31]

The Nee Soon stream drainage in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve is virtually the last remaining fragment of primary freshwater swamp forest in Singapore. The forest type has been poorly studied in the Southeast Asia. The hydrology, water quality, as well as aquatic flora and fauna all have great theoretical and practical significance. The ecology and management of the Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest are reviewed, with remarks on their national, regional and global contexts. This review sets the scene for a three-year integrated conservation and management study completed in 2016.

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C.T.T. Nguyen, R.J. Wasson & A.D. Ziegler
The hydro-geomorphic status of Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest catchment of Singapore [Page 33 - 48]

This paper presents initial findings from research on the hydro-geomorphic status of Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest catchment in Singapore. The hydrological system of Nee Soon contains a swamp that is best described as an organic-rich wetland, with organic matter content as high as 40% near the surface (too low to be classified as peat). Total longterm denudation rate in the catchment is an estimated 23.4 ± 2.08 Mg km-2 yr-1, with physical erosion (5.6 ± 0.5 Mg km-2 yr-1) and chemical weathering (17.8 ± 1.58 Mg km-2 yr-1) accounting for 24% and 76% of the totals, respectively. Age dating of a 1.95-m sediment core from the lower swamp indicates several distinct periods of variable sediment deposition (0.04 to 0.009 cm y-1) since 15,000 BCE, across a variety of climate regimes. A missing layer, representing more than a 7000 year period, verifies substantial channel erosion in the swamp occurring since 1950. Accelerated erosion associated with forest conversion to agriculture in the upper catchment could not be verified through examination of sediment cores. High concentrations of several heavy metals (e.g. As, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V) in the lower catchment, compared with the upper catchment, appear to be natural (e.g. related to differences in the underlying bedrock), rather than contamination. The very high concentrations of lead, copper, and zinc associated with firing activities in the military range in the lower catchment are spatially isolated (e.g. shooting berms), and currently not posing a threat to the swamp environment. Other hydrogeomorphic degradation processes/activities now include disruption to hillslope soils and streams by trampling and mountain biking, back-flow of reservoir release water into the lower swamp area, and atmospheric deposition of contaminants.

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K.Y. Chong, R.C.J. Lim, J.W. Loh, L. Neo, W.W. Seah, S.Y. Tan & H.T.W. Tan
Rediscoveries, new records, and the floristic value of the Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest, Singapore [Page 49 - 69]

The unique plant communities of the freshwater swamp forests of southern Johor (Malaysia) and Singapore attracted the attention of E.J.H. Corner, but there have been no comprehensive follow-up studies to his seminal work. Meanwhile, freshwater swamp forests in the region have been mostly lost to logging and in-filling for plantations or urban development. The Nee Soon catchment contains the last substantial tract of this forest type in Singapore. We collated the rediscoveries of vascular plant species presumed Nationally Extinct in the 2nd and latest edition of the Singapore Red Data Book, and new records for the Singapore vascular plant flora from the Nee Soon catchment, including those that we found and collected through the establishment and survey of 40 vegetation plots, each 20 × 20 m. We have identified 672 species from 117 families, of which 288 are trees from 60 families represented by at least one stem ≥ 5 cm DBH. The catchment is especially species rich and abundant in the Myristicaceae. In the last ten years, 53 rediscoveries, 11 new species records, and two new varietal records have been uncovered from (or can be found in) the Nee Soon catchment. The Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest is one of Singapore’s most valuable botanical areas, and warrants sustained conservation effort and study.

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J.K.I. Ho, R.F. Quek, S.J. Ramchunder, A. Memory, M.T.Y Theng, D.C.J. Yeo & E. Clews
Aquatic macroinvertebrate richness, abundance and distribution in the Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest, Singapore [Page 71 - 108]

The Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest is a vital area for biodiversity conservation in Singapore. A survey of the aquatic macroinvertebrates in the streams of the Nee Soon drainage was carried out to capture a representative sample of the communities present. Here, we present the different groups of macroinvertebrates sampled as well as their abundance and distribution within the freshwater swamp forest. An annotated checklist of the orders of the macroinvertebrates found in the freshwater swamp forest follows, together with information on their distribution and abundance within the Nee Soon catchment.

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W.H. Lim, T.J. Li & Y. Cai
Diversity of terrestrial snails and slugs in Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest, Singapore [Page 109 - 121]

Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest is the last remaining primary freshwater swamp forest left in Singapore and it contains a rich diversity of native and locally threatened fauna. As native terrestrial snails and slugs are poorly studied and understood in Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest, an extensive survey was conducted to establish their current status. A total of 19 species was recorded, of which one was recorded for Singapore for the first time. Amphidromus atricallosus temasek, a recently described subspecies endemic to Singapore, was found to be more commonly distributed than previously known from the swamp forest. Results also indicate that despite low overall abundance, Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest harbours a rich diversity of land snails and slugs. Any future long term changes in climate or topography, or short term changes in hydrology, might affect their distribution and diversity.

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Y. Cai, C. Y. Ng & R.W.J. Ngiam
Diversity, distribution and habitat characteristics of dragonflies in Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest, Singapore [Page 123 -153]

Biodiversity baselines were established for dragonflies of Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest based on quantitative sampling across the eight sub-catchments. Surveys were conducted from December 2014 to April 2016. Hydrological, physiochemical parameters and habitats were analysed to identify the main drivers structuring the dragonfly community. A total of 1706 odonate specimens were recorded, comprising 49 species of 34 genera in 11 families. The species diversity in each sub-catchment was compared using the Shannon-Wiener Index (H’). Hierarchical clustering and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) indicated that three main groupings of sites existed, each with a distinct community of associated species. Further analysis by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) with 12 significant environmental variables showed that these groups were significantly associated with respective environmental variables. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed to analyse the full 23 environmental variables. The first four principal components of the PCA explained 63% of the variation in all the environmental variables. These four axes were input as independent variables into an Ordinary Least Square (OLS) model to test the significance of the link between habitat characteristics and diversity of the dragonfly community. Threats to the odonate fauna of the freshwater swamp forest are identified and conservation management measures are discussed.

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S.N. Kutty, W. Wang, Y. Ang, Y.C. Tay, J.K.I. Ho & R.Meier
Next-Generation identification tools for Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest, Singapore [Page 155 - 173]

Many invertebrate and plant species are difficult to identify even by taxonomic experts. This has created a major obstacle for understanding the ecology of tropical environments. Here we explore the use of new large-scale, cost-effective approaches to species identification using Next-Generation Sequencing (“DNA barcodes”). Due to the rapid drop in sequencing cost, such barcodes have the potential to help with many identification tasks and they will facilitate regular monitoring of habitats. We use this approach to explore the species diversity of Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest and provide taxonomic identification tools for the fauna and flora of the forest. DNA-barcode libraries were generated for the flora (>1000 barcodes; 170 chloroplast genomes) and fauna (ca. 3000 barcodes). In addition, highresolution images of 502 animal and 200 plant species were placed on an online image database (“Biodiversity of Singapore”). These images are available to help experts and non-experts alike to identify and appreciate these species. The new databases document Nee Soon’s impressive diversity, but they are also important for in-depth studies of fauna-floral species interactions. For example, the plant barcodes were used to reconstruct the diet of Raffles’ banded langur based on faecal samples. Overall, we find that the fauna in Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest is very diverse and includes many rare species, and that the species composition is very distinct from those living in surrounding habitats. Animal specimens are readily sequenced, while plant specimens (especially those represented by sapwood samples) remain a challenge. However, newer techniques (e.g. based on genome skimming) are starting to help with obtaining plant DNA-barcodes.

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Y. Sun, D.E. Kim, D. Wendi, D.C.Doan, S.V.Raghavan, Z. Jiang & S.Y. Liong
Projected impacts of climate change on stream flow and groundwater of Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest, Singapore [Page 175 - 190]

As Singapore’s only remaining patch of primary freshwater swamp forest, the good management of the Nee Soon catchment is of utmost importance if a large proportion of the flora and fauna in Singapore is to be conserved. An integrated eco-hydrological model is developed for the area, with the objectives to numerically model the hydrological variations, to assess the possible impacts of future climate change, and to facilitate future ecohydrological management. The numerical model considers the hydrological processes in a holistic manner, including rainfall-runoff, evapotranspiration, the interaction between surface water and groundwater, etc. The numerical model makes use of a combination of field survey data and alternative remote sensing data. With climate projection inputs from the Regional Climate Model (RCM), the numerical model is applied to run future scenarios to assess the climate change impact. A few management strategies are considered if favourable hydrological conditions are to be maintained for conserving the local ecosystem.

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Y. Cai, G.W.H. Davison, L. Chan & S.Y. Liong
Conservation outputs and recommendations for Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest, Singapore [Page 191 - 217]

The current paper acts as a summary to the “Nee Soon Swamp Forest biodiversity and hydrology baseline studies project”, including results published previously and the results from papers of the current volume. Overall, flora and fauna surveys indicate healthy and diverse plant, fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest. There are some concerns over terrestrial and aquatic alien invasive species, loss of big emergent trees, small population sizes and viability of various native species, and the uncertain outcomes of changes in water quality and quantity. The findings inform management that Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest is especially vulnerable to changes in hydrology and there is much dependency on precipitation for its water budget. Projected climate change effects on precipitation and statistical analyses of biotic responses to hydrology clearly define drought as a major, perhaps the foremost, source of vulnerability to the ecosystem functioning of Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest. Potential management solutions are suggested to address five issues of concern for the forest: hydrological integrity, erosion and sedimentation, ecological integrity, the impact of the spillway, and impacts of construction and development.

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Year of Publication: 2017, Vol. 69 (2)

Date Published 20 November 2017
M.A. Niissalo & J. Leong-Škorničková
Hanguana podzolicola (Hanguanaceae), a new record for Singapore [Page 157 - 165]
Hanguana podzolicola (Hanguanaceae) is newly recorded for Singapore. Detailed colour plates are given alongside the main characters for distinguishing this species from the two most similar species in Singapore, Hanguana rubinea and H. triangulata. The seeds of Hanguana podzolicola are described for the first time. A local conservation assessment is given. As no original material of Hanguana podzolicola could be traced, a neotype is designated here. Following a recent clarification of several historical Hanguana names it is noted here that the correct name for the large helophytic stoloniferous species often cultivated in Singapore under the name Hanguana malayana is Hanguana anthelminthica. An updated key to Hanguana species in Singapore is provided.

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R.P.J. de Kok
Two new records of Litsea (Lauraceae) from Singapore and the lectotypification of twenty-two names from several Lauraceae genera [Page 167 - 177]
Two species of Litsea (Lauraceae) are recorded for Singapore for the first time (Litsea spathacea Gamble and L. tomentosa Blume). Both species are known only from 19th century specimens and must be considered nationally extinct in Singapore. Descriptions and notes on distribution, conservation status and ecology are given. In addition, twenty-two Lauraceae names are lectotypified: Beilschmiedia curtisii Gamble, B. perakensis Gamble; Cinnamomum subavenium Miq.; Cryptocarya argentea Gamble, C. infectoria (Blume) Miq., C. tomentosa Blume; Lindera lucida (Blume) Boerl., L. malaccensis Hook.f.; Litsea accedens (Blume) Boerl., L. amara Blume var. attenuata Gamble, L. gracilis Gamble, L. gracilipes Hook.f., L. griffithii Gamble, L. lanceolata (Blume) Kosterm., L. machilifolia Gamble, L. machilifolia Gamble var. angustifolia Gamble, L. megacarpa Gamble, L. pustulata Gamble, L. sarawacensis Gamble, L.singaporensis Gamble, L. spathacea Gamble, L. umbellata (Lour.) Merr.

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M. Dančák, M. Hroneš, R.S. Sukri, F. Metali & A.A. Joffre
Novitates Bruneienses, 9. A synopsis of Epirixanthes (Polygalaceae) in Brunei Darussalam and notes on species elsewhere [Page 179 - 187]
The genus Epirixanthes Blume is revised for Brunei Darussalam. Four species are recognised for the country: Epirixanthes cylindrica Blume, E. elongata Blume, E. kinabaluensis T.Wendt and E. papuana J.J.Sm., with the two latter species being newly recorded for the Brunei flora. A single collection from Brunei that was formerly identified as Epirixanthes pallida T.Wendt is now confirmed as E. papuana. A revised key for the genus is included.

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M. Ardiyani, M.F. Newman & A.D. Poulsen
A new species of Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) east of Wallace’s Line [Page 189 - 199]
Zingiber Mill. is distributed from India to the Pacific but only a few species are known from east of Wallace’s Line, whereas the area to the west is rich in species. A recent collection from limestone at Bantimurung, South Sulawesi, Indonesia represents a new eastern species, Zingiber ultralimitale Ardiyani & A.D.Poulsen, which is described, illustrated, and barcoded using three of the four barcoding loci (rbcL, trnH-psbA and ITS). Placement of this species using morphological evidence is ambiguous but a combination of evidence from morphology, pollen anatomy and molecular analysis indicates that it belongs to Zingiber sect. Zingiber.

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G.G. Hambali, S. Sunarti & Y.W. Low
Syzygium jiewhoei (Myrtaceae), a new endemic tree from Western New Guinea, Indonesia [Page 201 - 210]
Syzygium jiewhoei Hambali, Sunarti & Y.W.Low, a new species from Western New Guinea, Indonesia, is described and illustrated. It is closely related to Syzygium recurvovenosum (Lauterb.) Diels but differs in a range of vegetative and reproductive morphological characteristics.

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C. Puglisi & D.J. Middleton
A revision of Microchirita (Gesneriaceae) in Thailand [Page 211 - 284]
Microchirita (C.B.Clarke) Yin Z.Wang (Gesneriaceae: Didymocarpoideae) in Thailand is revised and 29 species are recognised, two of which have three varieties each. Eight new species are described, Microchirita albocyanea C.Puglisi, Microchirita glandulosa C.Puglisi, Microchirita hypocrateriformis C.Puglisi, Microchirita limbata C.Puglisi, Microchirita luteola C.Puglisi, Microchirita tadphoensis C.Puglisi, Microchirita tetsanae C.Puglisi, Microchirita thailandica C.Puglisi; three new varieties are described, Microchirita involucrata var. gigantiflora C.Puglisi, Microchirita mollissima var. glabra C.Puglisi, Microchirita mollissima var. glandulophylla C.Puglisi; and one name is combined at a new rank, Microchirita involucrata var. capitis (Craib) C.Puglisi. Two lectotypifications are made, one of which is a second step lectotypification. A key to all taxa is given, all taxa are described, and many are illustrated.

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W.H. Chen, D.J. Middleton, H.Q. Nguyen, H.T. Nguyen, L.V. Averyanov, R.Z. Chen, K.S. Nguyen, M. Möller & Y.M. Shui
Two new species of Oreocharis (Gesneriaceae) from Northwest Vietnam [Page 295 - 305]
Two new species of Oreocharis (Gesneriaceae), O. argyrophylla W.H.Chen, H.Q.Nguyen & Y.M.Shui and O. blepharophylla W.H.Chen, H.Q.Nguyen & Y.M.Shui, from the Xuan Nha nature reserve, Van Ho district, Son La province, in northwestern Vietnam are described. They are compared to their most similar species and diagnostic characteristics are provided.

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S. Li, Z.B. Xin, X. Hong, L.F. Fu & F. Wen
Primulina wuae (Gesneriaceae), a new species from southern China [Page 307 - 313]
A new species, Primulina wuae F.Wen & L.F.Fu (Gesneriaceae), is described from the southern part of China. This new species is most similar to Primulina pseudoroseoalba Jian Li et al., P. roseoalba (W.T.Wang) Mich.Möller & A.Weber, P. subrhomboidea (W.T.Wang) Yin Z.Wang and P. beiliuensis B.Pan & S.X.Huang var. fimbribracteata F.Wen & B.D.Lai, but differs from these in characters such as the size and indumentum of the bracts, the indumentum of the pedicels and anthers, the length of the pistils etc. A provisional conservation assessment is also provided.

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