Year of Publication: 2014, Vol. 66 (1)

Date Published 10 July 2014
D.J. Middleton
K.H. Lau 
The conservation of Peninsular Malaysian Geostachys (Zingiberaceae) [Page 3 - 14]
There are currently 15 species of Geostachys in Peninsular Malaysia of which 13 are hyper endemic to their localities. Four taxa are categorised as Endangered, eight as Vulnerable and one each as Near Threatened, Least Concern and Data Deficient. Maps showing the Extent of Occurrence and Area of Occupancy for each species are included. Key issues and recommendations on conservation measures, particularly with respect to ecotourism, are discussed.
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J. Leong-Škorničková
Orchidantha lengguanii (Lowiaceae), a new species from Peninsular Malaysia, and typification of O. maxillarioides [Page 15 - 25]
A new Orchidantha species from Endau-Rompin National Park (Johor, Peninsular Malaysia), O. lengguanii Škorničk., is described and illustrated. It is compared to its morphologically most similar species Orchidantha maxillarioides (Ridl.) K.Schum., which is also illustrated. A lectotype and epitype for Orchidantha maxillarioides are also designated here.

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J. Leong-Škorničková, H.-J. Tillich and Q.B. Nguyễn
Two new species and one new variety of Aspidistra (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae) from southern Vietnam [Page 27 - 37]
Two new species and one new variety of Aspidistra Ker-Gawl. (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae) from southern and central Vietnam, A. ventricosa Tillich & Škorničk., A. mirostigma Tillich & Škorničk., and A. connata Tillich var. radiata Tillich & Škorničk., are described and illustrated here.
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J. Leong-Škorničková, H.Đ. Trần, Q.B. Nguyễn and O. Šída
Siliquamomum alcicorne (Zingiberaceae: Alpinioideae), a new species from central Vietnam [Page 39 - 46]
Siliquamomum alcicorne (Zingiberaceae: Alpinioideae) from central Vietnam is described and illustrated here. It is compared to the other two species so far known in the genus, S. tonkinense and S. oreodoxa. A key to the three species and a map of their distribution are given. The genome size of each species has been estimated by FCM analysis. The occurrence of flexistyly in the genus Siliquamomum is reported here for the first time.
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Y.W. Low, P.K.F. Leong, S.P. Tee, Rajesh Singh, M.L.C. Tay and K.M. Wong
Margaritaria (Phyllanthaceae), a new generic record for the Singapore flora [Page 47 - 56]
The Warren Golf Club in south-central Singapore, established in 1962 and sandwiched between Dover Road and the Ayer Rajah Expressway (AYE), retained some tree stands that could have unwittingly served as a refugium for some forest species before it was relocated elsewhere in 2000 to make way for the development of University Town, or UTown, an extension of the National University of Singapore. At this locality, Margaritaria indica, a new genus and species record for Singapore, was discovered. The distribution, rarity, and conservation status of this taxon for Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia are discussed.

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D.J. Middleton
A new combination in Liebigia (Gesneriaceae) [Page 57 - 59]
The new combination Liebigia barbata (Jack) D.J.Middleton is made for the species previously known as either Chirita asperifolia (Blume) B.L.Burtt or Liebigia speciosa (Blume) DC. The complex nomenclatural history of these latter names is discussed. Liebigia barbata is neotypified.
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T.K.T. Nguyen and N.T. Nguyen
A new species of Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) from Vietnam [Page 61 - 65]
A new species of Euphorbiaceae, Mallotus phongnhaensis, is described from Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park, Vietnam. This new species belongs to Mallotus sect. Axenfeldia and is distinguished from other species in several significant features including its shrubby habit up to 1 m high, submarginal extrafloral nectaries with 6–12 per side, and few flowered, cauliflorous inflorescences.
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V.D. Nguyen, H.Q. Bui and Josef Bogner
The status of Cryptocoryne annamica (Araceae: Aroideae: Cryptocoryneae) in Vietnam [Page 67 - 72]
Cryptocoryne annamica Serebryanyi, an endemic species from Gia Lai province in Vietnam, was first described in 1991. Until recently only two collections were known but a new collection has now been made in the Kon Ka King National Park, Gia Lai province. The species description is elaborated and notes on its biology, distribution, ecology and cultivation are given. A proposed IUCN conservation assessment is given. A key to the Cryptocoryne species of Vietnam is included.

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Year of Publication: 2013, Vol. 65 (2)

Date Published 24 December 2013
Wisnu H. Ardi, I.M. Ardhaka, M. Hughes, N.K.E. Undaharta, D. Girmansyah4 and S. Hidayat 
Two new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bali and Lombok [Page 135 - 142]
Two new species of Begonia, B. lugrae Ardhaka & Undaharta and B. sendangensis Ardi are described from Bali and Lombok, respectively. The species belong to Begonia section Reichenheimea. A checklist and identification key to the Bali and Lombok species of Begonia are provided.

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Edwino S. Fernando and Michele Rodda
Marsdenia purpurella (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a new species from the Philippines [Page 143 - 148]
Marsdenia purpurella Fernando & Rodda, a new species from the Philippines, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from all known species of Marsdenia from the Philippines in its rotate corolla lacking a corolline corona, simple umbelliform inflorescence, and very short peduncle.

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Ruth Kiew
Clarification of Hermann H. Kunstler’s botanical collecting localities in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 149 - 156]
Kunstler’s collections made in Gopeng, Perak, in 1880 had labels wrongly printed with ‘Larut’; herbarium specimens from Ulu Bubong, Ulu Kerling, and Sungai Kul were wrongly localised as from Perak instead of from Selangor; ‘G.M.’ on Kunstler’s labels from his 4th expedition to Gopeng in 1885, which included plants restricted to limestone, refers to Gunung Mesah south of Gopeng (not Gunung Megua or Gunung Malacca, names that do not exist, nor does it refer to Gunung Bujang Melaka, a granite peak south of Kampar, Perak); lastly ‘near G.M.’ probably refers to Gunung Tempurong, Perak. Paraboea capitata Ridl. and P. vulpina Ridl., both strict calcicoles, were not collected from G. Bujang Melaka as was reported by Ridley.

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Agung Kurniawan, Ni Putu Sri Asih, Yuzammi and Peter C. Boyce
Studies on the Araceae of the Lesser Sunda Islands I: New distribution records for Alocasia alba [Page 157 - 162]
Alocasia alba Schott is a new record for the islands of Bali and Lombok, in the Indonesian Lesser Sunda Islands. An expanded description is given, and the species illustrated from living plants. A key to species of Alocasia for the Lesser Sunda Islands is provided.

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H. Kurzweil
Calanthe punctata (Orchidaceae), a new species from southern Myanmar [Page 163 - 168]
A new species of Calanthe (Orchidaceae) from southern Myanmar is described and illustrated. The new species belongs to subgenus Preptanthe (Rchb.f.) Schltr. and is very distinctive with its upright and strongly red-dotted petals. Differences from C. labrosa (Rchb.f.) Hook.f. which appears to be its closest relative are discussed.

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J. Leong-Škorničková and H.Ð. Trần
Two new species of Curcuma subgen. Ecomata (Zingiberaceae) from southern Vietnam [Page 169 - 180]
Two new species of Curcuma subgenus Ecomata (Zingiberaceae) from southern Vietnam, C. newmanii Škorničk. and C. xanthella Škorničk., are described and illustrated here. Their similarities and differences from their closest allies in the subgenus Ecomata, C. singularis Gagnep. and C. flaviflora S.Q.Tong, are discussed.

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David J. Middleton and Pramote Triboun
A new species of Somrania (Gesneriaceae) from Thailand [Page 181 - 184]
The new species Somrania flavida D.J.Middleton & Triboun, from Khao Sok National Park in Surat Thani Province, Thailand, is described. It is the third species in this genus which is restricted to karst limestone habitats in Thailand. A key to the species of Somrania is provided.

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Pranee Nangngam and J.F. Maxwell
Didymocarpus (Gesneriaceae) in Thailand [Page 185 - 225]
A taxonomic revision of Didymocarpus (Gesneriaceae) in Thailand has resulted in eighteen species. Three new species are described: Didymocarpus inflatus J.F.Maxwell & Nangngam, D. jaesonensis Nangngam & J.F.Maxwell, and D. payapensis Nangngam & J.F.Maxwell. A key to the Thai species, detailed descriptions, and notes on distribution, ecology, phenology, salient morphological traits, and illustrations are presented.

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I.M. Turner
A new species of Monoon (Annonaceae) from Brunei [Page 227 - 229]
Monoon bathrantherum I.M.Turner is newly described. It is only known from Brunei on the island of Borneo and is notable for bearing reproductive structures on branched inflorescences confined to the base of the trunk.

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Peter Wilkie, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, David Harris and Laura L. Forrest
The collection and storage of plant material for DNA extraction: The Teabag Method [Page 231 - 234]
Silica gel has become the most common instrument for preserving leaf material in the field for future DNA extraction. This has generally involved leaf material being placed in silica gel in zip-lock type bags. Although effective it often requires a large amount of silica gel and large number of plastic bags to be taken into the field, something which is problematic during long field trips to remote areas. It also has the disadvantage that if the silica gel becomes hydrated or the plant material damp, replacement of the silica gel is difficult and can result in contamination. An alternative method using empty teabags avoids the need to carry large amounts of silica gel and plastic bags into the field and reduces the difficulty of replacing hydrated silica gel during fieldwork and longer term institutional storage.

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K.M. Wong, M. Sugumaran and J.B. Sugau
Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae, V. The Fagraea complex in Borneo: New generic assignments and recombinations [Page 235 - 239]
A new classification of the Fagraea complex (Gentianaceae) based on recent molecular studies and taxonomic considerations now recognises the genera Cyrtophyllum, Fagraea in the strict sense, Limahlania, Picrophloeus, and Utania. The Bornean species of this complex are listed following the new perspective and the remaining necessary new combinations (seven, in Utania) are made.

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Y.S. Yeoh, C.K. Yeo, W.F. Ang and Y.W. Low
Marsdenia maingayi (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a rare rainforest woody climber rediscovered in Singapore [Page 241 - 249]
Marsdenia maingayi, a rare rainforest climber previously thought to be extinct in Singapore, was rediscovered in the vicinity of MacRitchie Reservoir, Central Catchment Nature Reserve in July 2012. This is the second sighting of the taxon in Singapore since it was first collected in Changi in 1885—more than 120 years later. Based on this recent discovery, additional observations on the taxon are provided here and the conservation status of this species is revised to Critically Endangered for Singapore. Marsdenia maingayi is lectotypified here.

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Year of Publication: 2013, Vol. 65 (1)

Date Published 30 June 2013
P.C. Boyce and S.Y. Wong 
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo XXII: The enigmatic Aridarum montanum refound [Page 1 - 5]
Aridarum montanum Ridl., a species known from a single herbarium specimen allegedly collected on Gunung (Mt) Santubong, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo in 1909, has been refound on exposed shales in Sri Aman Division, and Sarikei Division, Sarawak, and subsequently flowered in cultivation. Morphological differences of the new collection compared with the original description and figure are catalogued and commented upon. An amended and expanded species description is provided, and the plant is illustrated in habitat, and from flowering cultivated material. Speculations on the probable location origin of Brooks' type material are proffered.
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P.C. Boyce and S.Y. Wong
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo XXIII: Piptospatha colata and P. Deceptri, taxonomic novelties from Borneo [Page 7 - 17]
Piptospatha colata P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong and P. Deceptrix P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong are newly described, respectively from Kalimantan Barat and Kalimantan Utara, Indonesian Borneo. Recognition of these novelties takes to 13 the number of described, accepted species of Piptospatha. An updated key to the genus is provided and both species are illustrated, along with those species that are most similar.

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R. Gogoi and S. Borah
Musa markkui (Musaceae), a new species from Arunachal Pradesh, India [Page 19 - 26]
Musa markkui R.Gogoi & S.Borah, a new species of Musa of the section Rhodochlamy, is described and illustrated from Lohit valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India based on observed morphological characters in the field. A key to M. markkui and related taxa is provided.

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R. Gogoi and S. Borah
Two new species and a new record for Colocasia (Araceae: Colocasieae) from Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India [Page 27 - 37]
Two new species of Colocasia (Araceae: Colocasieae), C. Boyceana R.Gogoi & S.Borah and C. Dibangensis R.Gogoi & S.Borah are described and illustrated from Arunachal Pradesh, NE India. Colocasia lihengiae C.L.Long & K.M.Liu is reported as a new record for the Flora of India. All three species are illustrated from living plants. A key to the Colocasia of India is provided.

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R. Kishor and J. Leong-Skornickova
Zingiber kangleipakense (Zingiberaceae): A new species from Manipur, India [Page 39 - 46]
Zingiber kangleipakense Kishor & Skornick. (Zingiberaceae) from Manipur, India is newly described and illustrated. A comparison with the most closely related species, Z. longiligulatum and Z. roseum is provided.

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J.D. Mood, L.M. Prince, J.F. Veldkamp and S. Dey
The history and identity of Boesenbergia longiflora (Zingiberaceae) and descriptions of five related new taxa [Page 47 - 95]
The history of Boesenbergia longiflora (Wall.) Kuntze (Zingiberaceae) is reviewed, its identity is discussed and a lectotype designated. Five new, related taxa are described and illustrated: B. collinsii Mood & L.M.Prince, B. hamiltonii Mood, S.Dey & L.M.Prince, B. kerrii Mood, L.M.Prince & Triboun, B. kingii Mood & L.M.Prince, and B. maxwellii Mood, L.M.Prince & Triboun. A phylogenetic analysis of plastid trnK intron (including matKnuclear ITS DNA sequence data indicate these Boesenbergia species form a clade within Boesenbergia. Results of the molecular data analyses in concert with several diagnostic characters, support the recognition of the new taxa. Historical illustrations, colour plates, a field key to the species, a comparative table, a listing of the botanical history of B. longiflora, and a geographical distributional map are provided.

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M.F. Newman
Valid publication of Boesenbergia aurantiaca (Zingiberaceae) [Page 97 - 100]
The reason why Boesenbergia aurantiaca was invalidly published is given and the name is validated here.

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H.-J. Tillich and J. Leong-Skornickova
Aspidistra jiewhoei (Asparagaceae), a new species from north Vietnam [Page 101 - 105]
An unusual new species of Aspidistra Ker Gawl. (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae) from north Vietnam, A. Jiewhoei Tillich & Skornick. Is described and illustrated here

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Y.H. Tong, W.B. Xu, Y.F. Deng, K.M. Wong and N.H. Xia
Rubovietnamia sericantha (Rubiaceae: Gardenieae), a new combination and notes on the genus in China [Page 107 - 114]
Porterandia sericantha, originally published as Randia sericantha, is re-combined as Rubovietnamia sericantha. Because of its earlier published specific epithet,it is the correct name for the generic type, Rubovietnamia aristata. Rubovietnamia consists of two species distributed in SW China and N Vietnam.

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I.M. Turner
Additions to The Plant Taxa of H.N. Ridley, 4. The Primitive Angiosperms (Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Chloranthales, Laurales, Magnoliales, Nymphaeales and Piperales) [Page 115 - 116]
Three taxa omitted from an earlier compilation are listed here. They represent names authored by Henry Ridley for varieties in the Annonaceae. One name is lectotypified.

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J.F. Veldkamp
Nomenclatural notes on Eugenia reinwardtiana (Myrtaceae) and more or less associated names [Page 117 - 134]
The nomenclatures of Calyptranthes ramiflora Blanco, Caryophyllus cotinifolius Miller, Eugenia bukobensis Engler, E. codyensis Munro ex Wight, E. cotinifolia Jacq., E. elliptica Lam., E. hypoleuca Thwaites ex Kosterm., E. phillyreoides Trimen., E. reinwardtiana DC., E. roxburghii DC., E. salomonica C.T. White, Jossinia Comm. ex DC., Myrtus caryophyllata L., M. cotini folio Plumier, M. pimenta L., and Pimenta acris (Sw.) Kostel. (Myrtaceae), and more or less associated names are outlined. Some typifications are made.

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Year of Publication: 2012, Vol. 64 (2)

Date Published 12 December 2012
Peter C. Boyce, Zulhazman Hamzah and Sofiman Othman
Studies on Monstereae (Araceae) of Peninsular Malaysia IV: The enigmatic Rhaphidophora corneri refound after 75 years [Page 261 - 288]
Rhaphidophora corneri P.C.Boyce, a highly distinctive but hitherto poorly known species described from fragmentary material collected by E.J.H. Corner late in 1935 from Kemaman (Terengganu state in Peninsular Malaysia) has recently been refound in neighbouring Kelantan. A much-expanded species description is provided, along with new information pertaining to its ecology. A reinterpretation of possible relationships with other Rhaphidophora species is offered in light of these novel data. Photographs depicting newly observed vegetative morphology are provided.   

C. Pramod, A.K. Pradeep and J.F. Veldkamp
Coelachne madayensis (Poaceae: Pooideae: Isachneae), a new species from Kerala, India [Page 289 - 292]
A new species of Coelachne (Poaceae: Pooideae: Isachneae) from Madayippara in the Kannur District of Northern Kerala, India is described and illustrated. A key for the identification of the Indian congeners is provided.

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M. Rodda H.D. Tran, P.T. Chiew, D. Liew and J. Leong-Škorničková
The rediscovery of Dischidia hirsuta (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) in Singapore [Page 293 - 299]
This paper seeks to document the rediscovery of Dischidia hirsuta (Bl.) Decne. in Singapore. The taxon was last collected from Singapore in 1903 and later considered nationally extinct. Botanical investigation of Nee Soon Swamp Forest in May 2011 resulted in the rediscovery of a single specimen of D. hirsuta, now considered critically endangered.

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M. Sugumaran and K.M. Wong
Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae I: Fagraea sensu lato―complex genus or several genera? A molecular phylogenetic study [Page 301 - 332]
Phylogenetic studies of Fagraea s.l. based on maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of gene sequences for the nuclear ITS region and a number of chloroplast regions (trnL intron, trnL–F spacer and two partial sequence regions of ndhF) were carried out. Separate experiments with an ingroup of 29 taxa of Fagraea s.l. (8 from section Cyrtophyllum, 16 from section Fagraea and 5 from section Racemosae; all new sequences) were made with individual gene-region and combined data sets; and with 43 taxa using only an ITS data set that included published gene sequences of other recently revised, well-established genera of the same tribe (Potalieae). Reasonably consistent clade composition was obtained with all analyses: two clades could be equated to sections Fagraea and Racemosae, another two (Elliptica and Gigantea clades) are different portions of the section Cyrtophyllum, and the solitary F. crenulata resolved basal to the Fagraea clade in the chloroplast gene analyses but was a distinct lineage in a polytomy with the Fagraea, Racemosa and Gigantea clades in the ITS analyses. The equivalence of these clades and the F. crenulata lineage to other monophyletic groups represented by established genera in the expanded-ITS analysis, as well as considerations of potential morphological synapomorphies for these individual entities, suggest that Fagraea s.l. is too morphologically and phylogenetically divergent to be considered a single genus.
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Pramote Triboun and David J. Middleton
Twenty new species of Paraboea (Gesneriaceae) from Thailand [Page 333 - 370]
Twenty new species of Paraboea are described from Thailand: Paraboea arachnoidea Triboun, Paraboea axillaris Triboun, Paraboea bhumiboliana Triboun & Chuchan, Paraboea doitungensis Triboun & D.J. Middleton, Paraboea eburnea Triboun, Paraboea insularis Triboun, Paraboea lavandulodora Triboun, Paraboea monticola Triboun & D.J. Middleton, Paraboea nana Triboun & Dongkumfu, Paraboea nobilis Triboun & D.J. Middleton, Paraboea peninsularis Triboun & D.J. Middleton, Paraboea phanomensis Triboun & D.J. Middleton, Paraboea quercifolia Triboun, Paraboea rosea Triboun, Paraboea sangwaniae Triboun, Paraboea siamensis Triboun, Paraboea takensis Triboun, Paraboea tenuicalyx Triboun, Paraboea vachareea Triboun & Sonsupab and Paraboea xylocaulis Triboun. Full descriptions and conservation assessments are provided for all taxa.

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I.M. Turner
Annonaceae of Borneo: a review of the climbing species [Page 370 - 478]
The climbing species of the Annonaceae native to Borneo are reviewed. Eight genera of lianas are represented: Artabotrys (17 spp.), Desmos (4 spp.), Fissistigma (15 spp.), Friesodielsia (9 spp.), Mitrella (3 spp.), Pyramidanthe (1 sp.), Sphaerocoryne (1 sp.) and Uvaria (19 spp.). The species are described. Synonymy, typifications and keys for identification are included. No nomenclatural novelties are presented in this account.

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K.M. Wong and M. Sugumaran
Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae II: A taxonomic framework for the Fagraea complex, including the new genus Limahlania [Page 481 - 495]
A molecular phylogenetic study that provided good resolution of the Fagraea s.l. complex is the basis for constructing a new taxonomic framework in this group. The lineages identified showed good correspondence with other clades that represent well-established, recently revised genera in the tribe (Potalieae) and subtribe (Potaliinae) in terms of structure and statistical support (monophyly), and possessed recognisable morphological characteristics that were potentially synapomorphic for each monophyletic group. Generic identities are therefore adopted for the clades within this complex, as well as a somewhat isolated lineage, resulting in the definition of Fagraea Thunb. s.s.; the reapplication of Cyrtophyllum Reinw., Picrophloeus Blume, and Utania G.Don; and the circumscription of the new genus Limahlania K.M. Wong & M. Sugumaran. A key to the genera of the Fagraea complex is presented and nomenclatural notes are provided for each genus, in order to facilitate subsequent revisions. Limahlania crenulata (Maingay ex Clarke) K.M. Wong & M. Sugumaran and U. volubilis (Wall.) M.Sugumaran are new combinations. Lectotypes are selected for C. peregrinum Reinw., F. ceilanica Thunb., Kuhlia morindifolia Blume, and P. javanensis Blume.

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K.M. Wong and M. Sugumaran
Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae III: Cyrtophyllum reapplied to the Fagraea fragrans alliance [Page 497 - 510]
Cyrtophyllum Reinw., one of several distinct lineages among the Fagraea complex, is the correct genus to which five species of Southeast Asian trees should be assigned,
including the widespread F. fragrans. Cyrtophyllum minutiflorum K.M. Wong is a new species described here. Two new combinations are made: C. caudatum (Ridl.) K.M. Wong and C. wallichianum (Benth.) M. Sugumaran & K.M. Wong.

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K.M. Wong
Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae IV: A revision of Picrophloeus [Page 511 - 522]
Picrophloeus Blume is the correct generic assignment for four species forming one of several distinct lineages in the Fagraea complex. They include the widespread Southeast Asian P. javanensis Blume, otherwise commonly known by the dubious name F. elliptica Roxb. Three new combinations are made for species known only in Borneo: P. belukar (K.M.Wong & Sugau) K.M. Wong, P. collinus (K.M.Wong & Sugau) K.M. Wong, and P. rugulosus (K.M. Wong & Sugau) K.M. Wong.

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Zulhazman Hamzah, Peter C. Boyce and Mashhor Mansor
Studies on Homalomeneae (Araceae) of Peninsular Malaysia IV: Homalomena stongensis, a remarkable new species endemic to Gunung Stong, Kelantan [Page 523 - 527]
Homalomena stongensis is described from Gunung Stong, Kelantan, where it is very locally endemic to steep forested slopes. An updated key to Peninsular Malaysian species of Homalomena Supergroup Homalomena is provided, and the new species is illustrated.

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Year of Publication: 2012, Vol. 64 (1)

Date Published 15 July 2012
K.M. Wong
A hundred years of the Gardens’ Bulletin, Singapore [Page 1 - 32]
Historical developments are traced pertaining to the founding and transformation of the Agricultural Bulletin of the Malay Peninsula, 1891−1900, the Agricultural Bulletin of the Straits and Federated Malay States, 1901−1911, the first two periodicals of the Singapore Botanic Gardens, and the Agricultural Bulletin of the Straits and Federated Malay States, Third Series, which began in 1912. This third series soon continued as the Gardens’ Bulletin, Straits Settlements when in 1913 it was decided to continue the journal from the Botanic Gardens with a name change to avoid confusion with an Agricultural Bulletin separately begun for the Federated Malay States, as their new Department of Agriculture developed and economic activities around agriculture intensified. After World War II, this continued as the Gardens’ Bulletin, Singapore, which achieved its centenary in 2012. The early focus on the Hevea rubber crop and industry during the time of H.N. Ridley, its founding editor, and the re-orientation of the Gardens’ Bulletin into a journal with increased original content in the botanical (especially taxonomic) sciences from the period of I.H. Burkill, Ridley’s successor, are described. Historical events, especially the administrative divergence between the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States, the impact of World War II and post-war political development, the development of administrative organisation within the newly independent Singapore; and the integration of botanical science over the Malesian botanical region wherein the Malay Peninsula is located, have contributed to shaping the focus and scope of the Bulletin. The development phases of the Singapore Botanic Gardens―home of the Bulletin―as well as the pivotal roles of its leading botanists, are examined, through stages of scientific transformation from an essentially “Malayan” perspective largely maintained by a small botanical home team, to a more regionally relevant research programme, and finally an international outlook that continues to sustain its Southeast Asian emphasis.   

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Charles Clarke and Ch’ien C. Lee
A revision of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) from Gunung Tahan, Peninsular Malaysia [Page 33 - 49]
The Nepenthes from Gunung Tahan in Peninsular Malaysia are revised. We recognise four species from this mountain; N. alba, N. benstonei, N. gracillima and N. sanguinea. The reinstatement of N. alba is based on a consistent difference in upper pitcher colouration between it (typically evenly pale yellowish to ivory white) and N. gracillima (dark green with purple-brown speckles). Material from Gunung Tahan that was identified in previous treatments as N. macfarlanei belongs to N. gracillima and the former species is absent from Gunung Tahan. Nepenthes alba and N. gracillima are very similar to N. macfarlanei and further examinations of the relationships among these taxa are warranted.

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Helena Duistermaat
A taxonomic revision of Amischotolype (Commelinaceae) in Asia [Page 51 - 131]
A taxonomic revision of the Indomalayan part of the paleotropical genus Amischotolype Hassk. (Commelinaceae) reveals 22 species in Asia, of which eight are described as new (A. barbarossa Duist., A. divaricata Duist., A. dolichandra Duist., A. lobata Duist., A. parvifructa Duist., A. pedicellata Duist., A. strigosa Duist., A. welzeniana Duist.), and three are new combinations (A. hirsuta (Hallier f.) Duist., A. leiocarpa (Hallier f.) Duist., A. rostrata (Hassk.) Duist.). The status of the closely related genus Porandra Hong is discussed although results of a molecular study are required to make a final decision on its generic status. For now the genera are kept separate, but the species of Porandra are included in the key to the species of Amischotolype.

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H. Kurzweil and S. Lwin
First record of Taeniophyllum (Orchidaceae) in Myanmar [Page 133 - 137]
Taeniophyllum Blume was recently discovered in northern Myanmar, a new generic record for the country. The Myanmar specimens are referred to the widespread species T. glandulosum Blume, characterised by terete roots, warty inflorescence axes, distichous bracts, sepals and petals basally fused into a tube about as long as their ovate-lanceolate free parts, and an ovate-lanceolate lip with a globose spur.

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C.Y. Ling and S. Julia
Diversity of the tree flora in Semenggoh Arboretum, Sarawak, Borneo [Page 139- 169]
A 4-ha sample plot was established at the Arboretum, Semenggoh Forest Reserve to document tree species in this lowland mixed dipterocarp forest. The area assessed contains 2837 trees with diameter at breast height ≥ 10 cm belonging to 60 families, 160 genera and 541 species. Euphorbiaceae and Malvaceae (10 genera each) were the most diverse families at genus level and Dipterocarpaceae (61 species) is most diverse at species level. More than 25% of trees (720 individuals) were dipterocarps and contributed the highest basal area (cross-sectional area over-bark at breast height measured in m2) of 16.7 m2/ha. The most abundant species are Shorea multiflora (21 trees/ha) and Pouteria malaccensis (31 trees/ha) for dipterocarp and non-dipterocarp species, respectively. Semenggoh Arboretum has a rich and diverse flora and, being a natural primary forest in the middle of an increasingly developed area, Semenggoh is important as a genetic reservoir for threatened species (particularly the dipterocarps) and as an in-situ conservation site for Sarawak’s lowland mixed dipterocarp forest.

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R.R. Mill and M. Whiting
Podocarpus orarius (Podocarpaceae), a new species from the Solomon Islands and a taxonomic clarification of Podocarpus spathoides from Malaysia [Page 171 - 193]
Podocarpus spathoides de Laub. (Podocarpaceae) is revised and is restricted to material from Malaysia where the type was collected. An emended description is given because the protologue was based on a mixture of different taxa. Plants from the Solomon Islands, previously described as Podocarpus spathoides var. solomonensis Silba, are here raised to species rank as the new species Podocarpus orarius R.R.Mill & M.Whiting. This is currently believed to be endemic to the Solomon Islands where it has been wild-collected on Choiseul, San Jorge and Guadalcanal; cultivated material, apparently originating from the wild, has also been seen from the island of New Georgia. Similar plants occur on neighbouring islands of Vanuatu but require proper evaluation before they can be assigned to the new species. Illustrations of the habit and reproductive characters of Podocarpus orarius are provided. Material from Morotai in the Moluccas that has in the past been assigned to Podocarpus spathoides is also morphologically distinct from the type but is insufficient for formal naming. The leaf cuticle micromorphology of Podocarpus spathoides and P. orarius is described and illustrated.

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Q.B. Nguyen and Jana Leong-Škorničková
Distichochlamys benenica (Zingiberaceae), a new species from Vietnam [Page 195 - 200]
Distichochlamys benenica (Zingiberaceae) from north Vietnam is described. Colour plates are provided and the key to Distichochlamys species is updated.

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Hans-Juergen Tillich and Leonid V. Averyanov
Four new species of Aspidistra Ker-Gawl. (Asparagaceae) from China and Vietnam with a comment on A. longifolia Hook.f. and A. hainanensis W.Y.Chun & F.C.How [Page 201 - 209]
Four new species of Aspidistra Ker Gawl. (Asparagaceae) are described and illustrated: A. basalis Tillich, A. columellaris Tillich, A. gracilis Tillich from China, and A. coccigera L.V.Averyanov & Tillich from Vietnam. The application of the name A. longifolia Hook.f. to plants from SE Asia and the intraspecific variability of A. hainanensis W.Y.Chun & F.C.How across its range from peninsular Malaysia to SE China is also discussed.

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A.P.J. Ting, S.Y. Wong, J.Jamliah and P.C. Boyce
Phylogenetic study of the Schismatoglottis Nervosa Complex (Araceae: Schismatoglottideae) [Page 211 - 219]
The Schismatoglottis Nervosa Complex (Araceae: Schismatoglottideae) currently comprises 10 species: Schismatoglottis adoceta S.Y. Wong, S. elegans A.Hay, S. liniae S.Y. Wong, S. tessellata S.Y. Wong, S. ulusarikeiensis S.Y. Wong, S. matangensis S.Y. Wong, S. simonii S.Y. Wong, S. turbata S.Y. Wong, and S. nervosa Ridl., occurring in Borneo, with each endemic to a specific locality and most to a particular geology; and one species (S. brevicuspis Hook.f.) widespread in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, where it is restricted to granites. Based on analysis of the matK region, a preliminary biogeographical hypothesis for the origins and subsequent taxagenesis of the Nervosa Complex is presented. This study also provides insight into possible evolution of localised mesophytic endemics in everwet, humid, and perhumid megathermal Sundaic forests. Two clades are resolved: one north of, and another south of, the Lupar Divide.

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I.M. Turner
The plant taxa of H.N. Ridley, 4. The primitive angiosperms (Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Chloranthales, Laurales, Magnoliales, Nymphaeales and Piperales) [Page 221 - 256]
The  names of plant taxa authored by H.N. Ridley from the orders of primitive angiosperms are enumerated. A total of 157 taxa across 11 families (Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Chloranthaceae, Illiciaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae, Monimiaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Piperaceae, Trimeniaceae and Winteraceae) and seven orders (Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Chloranthales, Laurales, Magnoliales, Nymphaeales and Piperales) are listed with synonyms and accepted names. The types are listed for those taxa that Ridley described. Lectotypes are designated for 37 taxa. Melodorum breviflorum Ridl. (Annonaceae) is transferred to Fissistigma, and two Ridley species in Piperaceae that are later homonyms are provided with new names: Peperomia kerinciensis I.M.Turner for Peperomia villosa Ridl. (1917, nom. illegit. non P. villosa C.DC. (1866)) and Piper angsiense I.M.Turner for Piper venosum Ridl. (1925, nom. illegit. non P. venosum (Miq.) C.DC. (1869)).

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S.Y. Wong, P.C. Boyce and S.L. Low
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo XVII: The Schismatoglottis Hottae Complex, a new informal taxon, and three new species from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo [Page 257 - 269]
On the basis of a suite of shared morphological characters, the Schismatoglottis Hottae Complex is defined as a Borneo-endemic informal taxon in the Schismatoglottis Asperata Group. Four species, three novel, are assigned to the Hottae Complex: S. hottae Bogner & Nicolson, S. dilecta S.Y. Wong, P.C.Boyce & S.L. Low, sp. nov., S. mira S.Y. Wong, P.C. Boyce & S.L. Low, sp. nov., and S. thelephora S.Y. Wong, P.C. Boyce & S.L. Low, sp. nov. A key to species of the Hottae Complex is proffered. Schismatoglottis hottae is illustrated from the Holotype herbarium material, the three novelties from living plants.

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