Year of Publication: 2012, Vol. 64 (1)

Date Published 15 July 2012
K.M. Wong
A hundred years of the Gardens’ Bulletin, Singapore [Page 1 - 32]
Abstract:
Historical developments are traced pertaining to the founding and transformation of the Agricultural Bulletin of the Malay Peninsula, 1891−1900, the Agricultural Bulletin of the Straits and Federated Malay States, 1901−1911, the first two periodicals of the Singapore Botanic Gardens, and the Agricultural Bulletin of the Straits and Federated Malay States, Third Series, which began in 1912. This third series soon continued as the Gardens’ Bulletin, Straits Settlements when in 1913 it was decided to continue the journal from the Botanic Gardens with a name change to avoid confusion with an Agricultural Bulletin separately begun for the Federated Malay States, as their new Department of Agriculture developed and economic activities around agriculture intensified. After World War II, this continued as the Gardens’ Bulletin, Singapore, which achieved its centenary in 2012. The early focus on the Hevea rubber crop and industry during the time of H.N. Ridley, its founding editor, and the re-orientation of the Gardens’ Bulletin into a journal with increased original content in the botanical (especially taxonomic) sciences from the period of I.H. Burkill, Ridley’s successor, are described. Historical events, especially the administrative divergence between the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States, the impact of World War II and post-war political development, the development of administrative organisation within the newly independent Singapore; and the integration of botanical science over the Malesian botanical region wherein the Malay Peninsula is located, have contributed to shaping the focus and scope of the Bulletin. The development phases of the Singapore Botanic Gardens―home of the Bulletin―as well as the pivotal roles of its leading botanists, are examined, through stages of scientific transformation from an essentially “Malayan” perspective largely maintained by a small botanical home team, to a more regionally relevant research programme, and finally an international outlook that continues to sustain its Southeast Asian emphasis.   

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Charles Clarke and Ch’ien C. Lee
A revision of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) from Gunung Tahan, Peninsular Malaysia [Page 33 - 49]
Abstract:
The Nepenthes from Gunung Tahan in Peninsular Malaysia are revised. We recognise four species from this mountain; N. alba, N. benstonei, N. gracillima and N. sanguinea. The reinstatement of N. alba is based on a consistent difference in upper pitcher colouration between it (typically evenly pale yellowish to ivory white) and N. gracillima (dark green with purple-brown speckles). Material from Gunung Tahan that was identified in previous treatments as N. macfarlanei belongs to N. gracillima and the former species is absent from Gunung Tahan. Nepenthes alba and N. gracillima are very similar to N. macfarlanei and further examinations of the relationships among these taxa are warranted.

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Helena Duistermaat
A taxonomic revision of Amischotolype (Commelinaceae) in Asia [Page 51 - 131]
Abstract:
A taxonomic revision of the Indomalayan part of the paleotropical genus Amischotolype Hassk. (Commelinaceae) reveals 22 species in Asia, of which eight are described as new (A. barbarossa Duist., A. divaricata Duist., A. dolichandra Duist., A. lobata Duist., A. parvifructa Duist., A. pedicellata Duist., A. strigosa Duist., A. welzeniana Duist.), and three are new combinations (A. hirsuta (Hallier f.) Duist., A. leiocarpa (Hallier f.) Duist., A. rostrata (Hassk.) Duist.). The status of the closely related genus Porandra Hong is discussed although results of a molecular study are required to make a final decision on its generic status. For now the genera are kept separate, but the species of Porandra are included in the key to the species of Amischotolype.

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H. Kurzweil and S. Lwin
First record of Taeniophyllum (Orchidaceae) in Myanmar [Page 133 - 137]
Abstract:
Taeniophyllum Blume was recently discovered in northern Myanmar, a new generic record for the country. The Myanmar specimens are referred to the widespread species T. glandulosum Blume, characterised by terete roots, warty inflorescence axes, distichous bracts, sepals and petals basally fused into a tube about as long as their ovate-lanceolate free parts, and an ovate-lanceolate lip with a globose spur.

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C.Y. Ling and S. Julia
Diversity of the tree flora in Semenggoh Arboretum, Sarawak, Borneo [Page 139- 169]
Abstract:
A 4-ha sample plot was established at the Arboretum, Semenggoh Forest Reserve to document tree species in this lowland mixed dipterocarp forest. The area assessed contains 2837 trees with diameter at breast height ≥ 10 cm belonging to 60 families, 160 genera and 541 species. Euphorbiaceae and Malvaceae (10 genera each) were the most diverse families at genus level and Dipterocarpaceae (61 species) is most diverse at species level. More than 25% of trees (720 individuals) were dipterocarps and contributed the highest basal area (cross-sectional area over-bark at breast height measured in m2) of 16.7 m2/ha. The most abundant species are Shorea multiflora (21 trees/ha) and Pouteria malaccensis (31 trees/ha) for dipterocarp and non-dipterocarp species, respectively. Semenggoh Arboretum has a rich and diverse flora and, being a natural primary forest in the middle of an increasingly developed area, Semenggoh is important as a genetic reservoir for threatened species (particularly the dipterocarps) and as an in-situ conservation site for Sarawak’s lowland mixed dipterocarp forest.

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R.R. Mill and M. Whiting
Podocarpus orarius (Podocarpaceae), a new species from the Solomon Islands and a taxonomic clarification of Podocarpus spathoides from Malaysia [Page 171 - 193]
Abstract:
Podocarpus spathoides de Laub. (Podocarpaceae) is revised and is restricted to material from Malaysia where the type was collected. An emended description is given because the protologue was based on a mixture of different taxa. Plants from the Solomon Islands, previously described as Podocarpus spathoides var. solomonensis Silba, are here raised to species rank as the new species Podocarpus orarius R.R.Mill & M.Whiting. This is currently believed to be endemic to the Solomon Islands where it has been wild-collected on Choiseul, San Jorge and Guadalcanal; cultivated material, apparently originating from the wild, has also been seen from the island of New Georgia. Similar plants occur on neighbouring islands of Vanuatu but require proper evaluation before they can be assigned to the new species. Illustrations of the habit and reproductive characters of Podocarpus orarius are provided. Material from Morotai in the Moluccas that has in the past been assigned to Podocarpus spathoides is also morphologically distinct from the type but is insufficient for formal naming. The leaf cuticle micromorphology of Podocarpus spathoides and P. orarius is described and illustrated.

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Q.B. Nguyen and Jana Leong-Škorničková
Distichochlamys benenica (Zingiberaceae), a new species from Vietnam [Page 195 - 200]
Abstract:
Distichochlamys benenica (Zingiberaceae) from north Vietnam is described. Colour plates are provided and the key to Distichochlamys species is updated.

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Hans-Juergen Tillich and Leonid V. Averyanov
Four new species of Aspidistra Ker-Gawl. (Asparagaceae) from China and Vietnam with a comment on A. longifolia Hook.f. and A. hainanensis W.Y.Chun & F.C.How [Page 201 - 209]
Abstract:
Four new species of Aspidistra Ker Gawl. (Asparagaceae) are described and illustrated: A. basalis Tillich, A. columellaris Tillich, A. gracilis Tillich from China, and A. coccigera L.V.Averyanov & Tillich from Vietnam. The application of the name A. longifolia Hook.f. to plants from SE Asia and the intraspecific variability of A. hainanensis W.Y.Chun & F.C.How across its range from peninsular Malaysia to SE China is also discussed.

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A.P.J. Ting, S.Y. Wong, J.Jamliah and P.C. Boyce
Phylogenetic study of the Schismatoglottis Nervosa Complex (Araceae: Schismatoglottideae) [Page 211 - 219]
Abstract:
The Schismatoglottis Nervosa Complex (Araceae: Schismatoglottideae) currently comprises 10 species: Schismatoglottis adoceta S.Y. Wong, S. elegans A.Hay, S. liniae S.Y. Wong, S. tessellata S.Y. Wong, S. ulusarikeiensis S.Y. Wong, S. matangensis S.Y. Wong, S. simonii S.Y. Wong, S. turbata S.Y. Wong, and S. nervosa Ridl., occurring in Borneo, with each endemic to a specific locality and most to a particular geology; and one species (S. brevicuspis Hook.f.) widespread in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, where it is restricted to granites. Based on analysis of the matK region, a preliminary biogeographical hypothesis for the origins and subsequent taxagenesis of the Nervosa Complex is presented. This study also provides insight into possible evolution of localised mesophytic endemics in everwet, humid, and perhumid megathermal Sundaic forests. Two clades are resolved: one north of, and another south of, the Lupar Divide.

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I.M. Turner
The plant taxa of H.N. Ridley, 4. The primitive angiosperms (Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Chloranthales, Laurales, Magnoliales, Nymphaeales and Piperales) [Page 221 - 256]
Abstract:
The  names of plant taxa authored by H.N. Ridley from the orders of primitive angiosperms are enumerated. A total of 157 taxa across 11 families (Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Chloranthaceae, Illiciaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae, Monimiaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Piperaceae, Trimeniaceae and Winteraceae) and seven orders (Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Chloranthales, Laurales, Magnoliales, Nymphaeales and Piperales) are listed with synonyms and accepted names. The types are listed for those taxa that Ridley described. Lectotypes are designated for 37 taxa. Melodorum breviflorum Ridl. (Annonaceae) is transferred to Fissistigma, and two Ridley species in Piperaceae that are later homonyms are provided with new names: Peperomia kerinciensis I.M.Turner for Peperomia villosa Ridl. (1917, nom. illegit. non P. villosa C.DC. (1866)) and Piper angsiense I.M.Turner for Piper venosum Ridl. (1925, nom. illegit. non P. venosum (Miq.) C.DC. (1869)).

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S.Y. Wong, P.C. Boyce and S.L. Low
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo XVII: The Schismatoglottis Hottae Complex, a new informal taxon, and three new species from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo [Page 257 - 269]
Abstract:
On the basis of a suite of shared morphological characters, the Schismatoglottis Hottae Complex is defined as a Borneo-endemic informal taxon in the Schismatoglottis Asperata Group. Four species, three novel, are assigned to the Hottae Complex: S. hottae Bogner & Nicolson, S. dilecta S.Y. Wong, P.C.Boyce & S.L. Low, sp. nov., S. mira S.Y. Wong, P.C. Boyce & S.L. Low, sp. nov., and S. thelephora S.Y. Wong, P.C. Boyce & S.L. Low, sp. nov. A key to species of the Hottae Complex is proffered. Schismatoglottis hottae is illustrated from the Holotype herbarium material, the three novelties from living plants.

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Year of Publication: 2011, Vol. 63 (1&2)

Date Published 22 December 2011
J.F. Veldkamp
Georgius Everhardus Rumphius (1627–1702), the blind seer of Ambon [Page 1 - 15]
Abstract:
Georg Eberhard Rumpf, better known as Rumphius (1627–1702) was a Homo universalis and is the undisputed patriarch of Malesian botany, zoology, geology (including fossils!), colonial history; pharmaceutical, architectural, juridical (local and Western), ethnological, linguistic, historical, and religious matters, including astrology and magic. To botanists he is best known for his Herbarium amboinense (1741–1750), the first account and sometimes the only one of Malesian plants. This is a 7-volume folio work with extensive descriptions and discussions in Latin and Dutch of about 1200 species with 811 full-page illustrations. A brief account of his life and works is given.

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H. Rustiami, J.P. Mogea and S.S. Tjitrosoedirdjo
Revision of the rattan genus Daemonorops (Palmae: Calamoideae) in Sulawesi using a phenetic analysis approach [Page 17 - 30]
Abstract:
A phenetic analysis based on 27 morphometric characters of seven species of Daemonorops in Sulawesi recovered two groups with a similarity coefficient value of 0.51. Group A consists of D. takanensis and D. lamprolepis with a similarity coefficient value of 0.58. Group B is divided into subgroup B1 and subgroup B2, with a similarity coefficient value of 0.59. Group B1 consists of D. macroptera, D. mogeana and D. robusta. Group B2 consists of D. riedeliana and D. sarasinorum. An identification key to species and their descriptions are presented.

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Ary Prihardhyanto Keim, Rugayah and Himmah Rustiami
The Pandanaceae of the Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park and adjacent areas, West and Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, with notes on their nomenclature and the rediscovery of Pandanus aristatus and several new records [Page 31 - 62]
Abstract:
Eight species of Pandanaceae (3 Freycinetia spp., 5 Pandanus spp.) were recorded from the Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park and adjacent areas in the West and Central Kalimantan Provinces, Indonesia. Pandanus aristatus was recollected and the description improved. Pandanus motleyanus has been assigned to synonymy under P. yvanii. Pandanus yvanii and P. helicopus were found to occupy different niches in the peat swamps. Pandanus epiphyticus Martelli and P. pachyphyllus Merrill were recorded for the first time in Kalimantan. The doubtful presence of F. sumatrana in Java is resolved. Two Eastern Malesian species, F. amboinensis and F. ceramensis are synonyms of F. sumatrana, thus the species is now an exceptionally widespread species in both western and eastern Malesia. Full descriptions of species are provided.

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Sri Endarti Rahayu, Alex Hartana, Tatik Chikmawati and Kuswata Kartawinata
A taxonomic study of the Pandanus furcatus and P. tectorius complexes (Pandanaceae) in Java [Page 63 - 70]
Abstract:
Current taxonomic problems in Pandanus in Java include the interpretation of the Pandanus furcatus complex as well as the P. tectorius complex. A study of general morphological, stomatal and molecular characteristics (viz., the noncoding chloroplast intergenic spacer region atpB-rbcL) showed that P. bantamensis Koord., P. pseudolais Warb., and P. scabrifolius Martelli, previously considered synonyms of P. furcatus, and P. tectorius var. littoralis Martelli and P. odoratissimus L.f. are all distinct species.

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A.Sumadijaya and J.F.Veldkamp
Bothriochloa (Poaceae: Andropogoneae) in Malesia [Page 71 - 76]
Abstract:
In Malesia there are four species of Bothriochloa (Poaceae: Andropogoneae). Andropogon modesta is lectotypified.

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Marie Briggs
Saurauia (Actinidiaceae) of New Guinea: current status, future plans [Page 77 - 82]
Abstract:
Saurauia, with approximately 300 species, is the largest of three genera within the family Actinidiaceae and is found in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia, Central and South America. The family placement of the genus has changed several times, at times being placed in Ternstroemiaceae, Dilleniaceae and its own family, Saurauiaceae. The island of New Guinea may be a centre of diversity for Saurauia in South East Asia with more than 50 species. No comprehensive treatment of New Guinean Saurauia has been attempted since the work of Diels in 1922, despite complaints by later researchers that this publication is out of date and the subdivisions of the genus proposed therein are unsatisfactory. A full account of the family, including Saurauia, has yet to be covered in Flora Malesiana. This paper presents an introduction to the genus Saurauia in New Guinea and communicates plans for future research.

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Mark Hughes and Deden Girmansyah
Searching for Sumatran Begonia described by William Jack: following in the footsteps of a 19th century Scottish botanist [Page 83 - 96]
Abstract:
Eight species of Begonia were described from Sumatra in 1822 by the Scottish botanist William Jack. All of the type material associated with these names was destroyed in a fire in 1824, and an expedition was mounted in August 2010 to re-visit Jack’s collecting localities in an effort to find material suitable for neotypification. Of the eight species, two (Begonia bracteata Jack and B. racemosa Jack) could be neotypified with certainty, whilst others require further work. It is possible that some of the species described from Bengkulu province may have become extinct due to loss of forest habitat.

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S. Syahida-Emiza, G. Staples and N.W. Haron
Materials for a revision of Erycibe (Convolvulaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 97 - 103]
Abstract:
Information from the literature, new observations based on field study, and new distribution data gathered from herbarium specimens and new collections are assembled in preparation for a revision of the genus Erycibe in Peninsular Malaysia. Significant new data are discussed and a conservation status is assigned to each of the 19 taxa recognised in Peninsular Malaysia. Problems still to be resolved are highlighted.

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T.M.A. Utteridge and M. Schori
Updating Malesian Icacinaceae [Page 105 - 118]
Abstract:
The Icacinaceae were traditionally considered difficult to recognise because of extremely diverse vegetative anatomy and an enormous range in structure. Using a traditional circumscription of the family, the Icacinaceae of Asia were revised by Sleumer in 1969 and published in the Flora Malesiana in 1971, and included 100 species in 21 genera. Since the publication of the FM account, a new understanding of relationships within the group, stimulated by molecular phylogenetic data, has resulted in these genera being assigned to several different, more morphologically homogeneous families. In addition, an increase in collections has allowed species-level taxonomy to be revised in several groups, resulting in new species from the region, as well as a new genus from Borneo. In this paper these changes are reviewed, with a discussion of useful characters for identification, and an updated list of families, genera and species presented.

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J.A. Wearn and D.J. Mabberley
Clerodendrum confusion―redefinition of, and new perspectives for, a large Labiate genus [Page 119 - 124]
Abstract:
Formerly referred to Verbenaceae s.l., Clerodendrum L. is one of the largest genera within the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) s.l., and many of its species are of ecological and commercial importance. However, confusion about species delimitation and identification has reigned for many decades, resulting in large quantities of unidentified, or misidentified, herbarium material. Results from recent molecular studies have provided a framework for accurate placement of taxa. The revised concept of the genus is applied to taxa in Malesia in order to produce a modern account for Flora Malesiana, which includes up-to-date descriptions and much-needed keys. Progress made so far is reported.

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I.Nadiah and E. Soepadmo
A synopsis of Coelostegia (Bombacaceae/Malvaceae: Helicteroideae: Durioneae) and new records from Borneo [Page 125 - 135]
Abstract:
A synoptic revision of Coelostegia Benth. (Bombacaceae/Malvaceae subfam. Helicteroideae–Durioneae) in Borneo is given. Six species are recognised, of which four (C. chartacea, C. kostermansii, C. montana and C. neesiocarpa) are endemic to Borneo. Coelostegia griffithii, previously recorded only from Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java and Sumatra, is now also found in Borneo, while C. montana previously known only from Sarawak and Kalimantan also occurs in Sabah. Gross morphological and micromorphological characters show that the genus Coelostegia can be readily distinguished from other genera in the Durioneae-group by the epicalyx being much shorter than the calyx, the induplicatesaccate calyx character and the ovary being partly enclosed by the receptacle. The distinction is also supported by micromorphological characters derived from trichomes, stomata, and pollen. Nomenclatural (typification and synonymy) and taxonomic notes, ecology and geographical distribution of the recognised species are provided.

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H.S. Tan, R.C.K. Chung and E. Soepadmo
A synopsis of Jarandersonia (Malvaceae: Brownlowioideae) [Page 137 - 144]
Abstract:
A revision of Jarandersonia was conducted as part of a study of Malvaceae: Brownlowioideae for the Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak Project. Six species of Jarandersonia are recognised for Borneo, of which J. pentaceoides R.C.K.Chung & H.S.Tan, endemic to central Kalimantan, is new to science. A complete list of exsiccatae, nomenclatural and taxonomic notes, geographical distribution and conservation status of the recognised species, are provided.

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Peter Wilkie
Towards an account of Sapotaceae for Flora Malesiana [Page 145 - 153]
Abstract:
An overview of the pan-tropical family Sapotaceae is provided with particular focus on the Malesian region. Past and current taxonomic and phylogenetic research is summarised and publications relating to the production of a Flora Malesiana Sapotaceae account highlighted. Challenges to delivering a Flora Malesiana account are identified and some potential solutions suggested.

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Barry J. Conn and Julisasi T. Hadiah
Precursor to flora account of Procris (Urticaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 155 - 162]
Abstract:
A review of Elatostema J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. and Procris Juss. (Urticaceae) occurring in Peninsular Malaysia resulted in four taxa, currently classified in Elatostema, being transferred to the genus Procris. Six species of Procris are recognised as occurring in Peninsular Malaysia with the following new combinations provided here: Procris acaulis (Hook.f.) B.J. Conn & J.T. Hadiah; Procris curtisii (Ridl.) B.J. Conn & J.T. Hadiah; and Procris repens (Lour.) B.J. Conn & J.T. Hadiah. A modified description of Procris (including Pellionia) and a key to the species occurring in Peninsular Malaysia are provided.

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G.E. Lee, S. Robbert Gradstein, A. Damanhuri and A. Latiff
Towards a revision of Lejeunea (Lejeuneaceae) in Malaysia [Page 163 - 173]
Abstract:
As currently delimited, Lejeunea Lib. is characterised by the hyaline papilla at the proximal side of the first tooth of the lobule; the usual absence of ocelli in the leaf lobe; lobules occasionally reduced and with a single tooth; small, finely granular or homogeneous oil bodies; underleaves without or with straight, upright lobes; thin-walled epidermal cells that are larger than the medullary cells; branches of the Lejeunea-type; and gynoecia with lejeuneoid innovations. In Malaysia, 29 species of Lejeunea have hither to been recognised. In the framework of an ongoing taxonomic revision, all characters used to circumscribe the genus and the species from Malaysia have been critically assessed based on study of fresh material collected during many field excursions throughout Malaysia (the Peninsular, Sabah, Sarawak) as well as study of herbarium material. Some characters which were neglected previously, such as the morphology of the first lobule tooth, superior central cells and female bracts and bracteoles, are being critically evaluated. These characters may be useful for differentiating Lejeunea from closely related genera, whereas characters of oil bodies, the perianth, the lobule with a large disc cell, and underleaves with two large basal cells, are also useful for distinguishing some species within the genus.

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Vincent Demoulin
The study of larger basidiomycetes, especially polypores, in the Malesian region and the role of the Singapore Botanic Gardens [Page 175 - 188]
Abstract:
The development of the study of larger basidiomycetes, especially polypores, in the Malesian region is presented. The historical importance of the botanical gardens in Bogor and Singapore is emphasised and an overview of the mycological collection in Singapore is given. This includes several isotypes of taxa described by G.E. Massee, C.G. Lloyd and N. Patouillard, as well as paratypes and holotypes of taxa described by E.J.H. Corner. The problems linked to Corner’s material are discussed in the light of studies made in both Singapore and Edinburgh. The polypore collection in Singapore is a valuable resource for studying any geographical variation of fungal floras in the Malesian region and a unique tool for examining any temporal change in this flora, given the continuity of collections in the island since H.N. Ridley in 1892.

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M.C. Roos, W.G. Berendsohn, S. Dessein, T. Hamann, N. Hoffmann, P. Hovenkamp, T. Janssen, D. Kirkup, R. de Kok, S.E.C. Sierra, E. Smets, C. Webb and P.C. van Welzen
e-Flora Malesiana: state of the art and perspectives [Page 189 - 195]
Abstract:
An overview is presented of available e-taxonomic products and ongoing projects contributing to Flora Malesiana. This is presented in the context of a strong plea to strengthen the implementation of state-of-the-art e-taxonomy tools to speed up the generation and publication of Flora Malesiana information.

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K.Y. Chong, Hugh T.W. Tan and Richard T. Corlett
A summary of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore [Page 197 - 204]
Abstract:
The last analysis of the vascular plant flora of Singapore was published more than a decade ago. Since then, the conservation statuses of all native species have been assessed and more exotic species have been recognised as naturalised. We present a holistic view of the family compositions and life forms of the total flora, including many exotic species that are found in cultivation only and not yet escaped or naturalised. Excluding extinct species, exotic species now outnumber native species. Horticultural introductions have also strongly influenced family compositions: legumes and palms are now the most species-rich families in the total flora. Legumes are also a dominant family among all naturalised life forms. We briefly discuss these implications for local conservation ecology.

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A.T.K. Yee, Richard T. Corlett, S.C. Liew and Hugh T.W. Tan
The vegetation of Singapore―an updated map [Page 205 - 212]
Abstract:
The primeval vegetation of Singapore was largely lowland dipterocarp forest, with mangrove forest lining much of the coast and freshwater swamp forest found further inland adjacent to the streams and rivers. After colonization by the British in 1819, almost all the primeval vegetation was cleared for agriculture and other land uses. The most comprehensive vegetation map of Singapore was made in the 1970s and has not been updated since. Here we present an updated vegetation map of Singapore using information from satellite images, published works, and extensive ground-truthing. Vegetation covers 56% of Singapore’s total land area: 27% is actively managed (parks, gardens, lawns, etc.) and 29% is spontaneous vegetation. Primary lowland dipterocarp forest and freshwater swamp forest cover only 0.28% and is confined to the Bukit Timah and Central Catchment Nature Reserves. The majority of the non-managed vegetation is secondary forest of various kinds, dominated by native or alien trees. The managed vegetation and alien-dominated secondary vegetation are understudied and deserve more research attention. The vegetation of Singapore should be re-mapped at regular intervals in order to better understand the changes.

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Zulhazman Hamzah, Mashhor Mansor and P.C. Boyce
Notes on Araceae of Kuala Koh, Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia [Page 213 - 218]
Abstract:
A total of 32 species from 11 genera of aroids were collected from Kuala Koh, Gua Musang, Kelantan. This represents about 23% out of an estimated 140 species and 39% of the 28 genera of aroids reported for Peninsular Malaysia. These include 24 species that are new records for Kelantan, including the recently described Homalomena kualakohensis Zulhazman, Mashhor & P.C.Boyce, and the very rare Rhaphidophora corneri P.C.Boyce, refound after 75 years.

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Victor B. Amoroso, Socorro H.Laraga and Bridget V. Calzada
Diversity and assessment of plants in Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park, Bukidnon, Southern Philippines [Page 219 - 236]
Abstract:
This research describes the vegetation types, determines the diversity and assesses the conservation status of vascular plants in Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park, Bukidnon Province. Twelve 20 m × 20 m nested plots were established per vegetation type. A transect survey with 34 plots revealed three vegetation types, namely the agroecosystem, lower montane forest and mossy forest, with 661 species, 264 genera, and 106 families enumerated. Plant species richness and diversity decreases as the altitude increases, and the mossy forest had the lowest species diversity. Lithocarpus sp. obtained the highest Species Importance Value (SIV) for trees in both lower montane and mossy forests together, while Leptospermum sp. had the highest SIV in the mossy forest. Tree profile analysis showed that the lower montane forest had the highest mean number of species (7.9 spp.) and individuals (26.9 individuals), mean height (11.12 m) and mean diameter at breast height (dbh, 39.40 cm). The upper mossy forest had the lowest mean number of species (4.4 spp.), individuals (20.2 individuals), average height (7.03 m) and average dbh (16.60 cm). We assess 92 threatened and 82 rare species; 108 endemic species, 50 economically important species, 56 species newly recorded in the locality and 20 species newly recorded for the Philippines. Policy recommendations are given for protecting the remaining threatened, endemic and rare species of plants and their habitats.

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S.L. Low, S.Y. Wong, J. Jamliah and P.C. Boyce
Phylogenetic study of the Hottarum Group (Araceae: Schismatoglottideae) utilising the nuclear ITS region [Page 237 - 243]
Abstract:
Recent phylogenetic analyses of the tribe Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) elucidated a well-supported but internally unresolved crown group comprising Schismatoglottis sarikeensis (Bogner & M.Hotta) A.Hay & Bogner, previously placed in the genus Hottarum Bogner & Nicolson, the genus Phymatarum M.Hotta, and a number of species either novel or hitherto placed in Schismatoglottis Zoll. & Moritzi. The clade is particularly interesting in that it is centred in northern central Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo), north of the Lupar Divide and appears to represent an autochthonous radiation point for evolutionary activity isolated from the major tribal radiations in south-western Sarawak. Former Hottarum species (with the exclusion of H. truncatum) transferred to Piptospatha and Schismatoglottis are misplaced. All except Bakoa lucens (Bogner) P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong belong to this supra-Lupar Divide grouping. This study was undertaken to test the validity and phylogeny of the genus Hottarum utilising the nuclear ITS region.

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André Schuiteman
Dendrobium (Orchidaceae): To split or not to split? [Page 245 - 257]
Abstract:
Dendrobium Sw. is one of the three largest orchid genera, with around 1580 species if certain currently accepted satellite genera are included. Until recently, no serious attempts have been made to split up this important genus into smaller genera. An infrageneric classification at the sectional level, largely due to Schlechter, has been accepted by most workers. Recent analyses based on DNA markers by Yukawa, Clements, and others have provided new insights into the phylogeny of Dendrobium. Their work shows that Dendrobium is not monophyletic when the satellite genera are excluded. This led to proposals to split up Dendrobium into as many as fifty genera, largely along the lines of Schlechter’s sections. However, the data do not suggest any single, evident way to do the splitting. Here it is argued that a broad concept of the genus Dendrobium, which includes genera like Cadetia Gaudich., Flickingeria A.D.Hawkes and Epigeneium Gagnep., among others, is to be preferred. The comparable cases of other large orchid genera are briefly discussed and some observations are made on character evolution in Dendrobium and the origin of the genus in light of DNA-based phylogenies.

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Birgit Oelschlägel, Sarah Wagner, Karsten Salomo, Nediyaparambu Sukumaran Pradeep, Tze Leong Yao, Sandrine Isnard, Nick Rowe, Christoph Neinhuis and Stefan Wanke
Implications from molecular phylogenetic data for systematics, biogeography and growth form evolution of Thottea (Aristolochiaceae) [Page 259 - 275]
Abstract:
The genus Thottea comprises about 35 species distributed from India throughout Southeast Asia. However, most of the species have a narrow distribution. A first molecular phylogeny based on the chloroplast trnK intron, matK gene and trnK-psbA spacer is presented and confirms the monophyly of the genus according to Hou in 1981. Earlier subdivisions into the sections or genera Apama and Thottea could not be substantiated since both proved to be paraphyletic with respect to each other. The taxonomic and systematic history of Thottea is discussed with respect to molecular and morphological data. Thottea piperiformis is sister to all other species, which gives limited recognition to Asiphonia piperiformis as proposed by Huber (1985). Thottea tomentosa, one of the smallest and most widespread species is subsequently sister to all remaining species. Thottea diversified in two biogeographic regions: the Western Ghats in India and the Indo-Malayan region. A high degree of endemism is observed resulting from the presence of very few species shared between islands, which might be the result of a single colonisation and subsequent radiation. Within Piperales, Thottea holds a key position between the herbaceous Asaroideae and the woody Aristolochioideae.

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S. Rajbhandary, M. Hughes, T. Phutthai, D.C. Thomas and Krishna K. Shrestha
Asian Begonia: out of Africa via the Himalayas? [Page 277 - 286]
Abstract:
The large genus Begonia began to diverge in Africa during the Oligocene. The current hotspot of diversity for the genus in China and Southeast Asia must therefore be the result of an eastward dispersal or migration across the Asian continent. To investigate the role of the Himalayas as a mesic corridor facilitating this migration, we constructed a timecalibrated molecular phylogeny using ITS sequence data. Himalayan species of Begonia were found to fall into two groups. The first is an unresolved grade of tuberous, deciduous species of unknown geographic origin, with evidence of endemic radiations in the Himalayan region beginning c. 7.4 Ma, coinciding with the onset of the Asian monsoon. The second is a group of evergreen rhizomatous species with a probable origin in China, which immigrated to the Himalayan region c. 5.1 Ma, coinciding with an intensification of the monsoon. The hypothesis of the Himalayas being a mesic migration route during the colonisation of Asia is not refuted, but further data is needed.

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Gemma L.C. Bramley
Distribution patterns in Malesian Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) [Page 287 - 298]
Abstract:
A revision of the 55 species of Callicarpa L. (Lamiaceae) in Malesia is almost complete. There appear to be two major centres of diversity, in terms of species numbers: Borneo has 23 (44%) of the species (Bramley 2009), with 19 (83%) endemic; the Philippines has 26 (50%) of the species of which 16 (61%) are endemic (Bramley, in press, a). Callicarpa species have an extensive variation in distribution patterns; this paper focuses on the Pan-Malesian species, and the species of Borneo and the Philippines, the two islands / island groups that are the centre of Callicarpa species diversity. Fifteen of the 19 Callicarpa species endemic to Borneo belong to the ‘Geunsia’ group, an informal group used here to recognise Callicarpa pentandra and its relatives. The Geunsia group appears to be restricted to Malesia, and is only represented by C. pentandra outside of Borneo, the Philippines and Sulawesi. The 16 Callicarpa species endemic to the islands of the Philippines represent a number of different informal morphology-based groups containing species from other areas of Malesia, China or Indo-China, or, they do not appear to belong to any particular group.

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Hans P. Nooteboom
How did Magnolias (Magnoliaceae: Magnolioideae) reach Tropical Asia? [Page 299 - 306]
Abstract:
Extant magnolias (Magnoliaceae, Magnolioideae) have a classic disjunct distribution in southeast Asia and in the Americas between Canada and Brazil. Molecular analyses reveal that several North American species are basal forms suggesting that magnolias originated in North America, as indicated by their fossil record. We recognise four elements in their evolution: (1) Ancestral magnolias originated in the Late Cretaceous of North America in high mid-latitudes (45°–60°N) at low altitudes in a greenhouse climate. (2) During the exceptionally warm climate of the Eocene, magnolias spread eastwards, via the Disko Island and Thulean isthmuses, first to Europe, and then across Asia, still at low altitudes and high mid-latitudes. (3) With mid-Cenozoic global cooling, they shifted to lower mid-latitudes (30°–45°N), becoming extinct in Europe (Yulania was still present less than 2 mya.) and southern Siberia, dividing a once continuous distribution into two, centered in eastern Asia and in North America. (4) In the late Cenozoic, as ice-house conditions developed, magnolias migrated southward from both centres into moist warm temperate upland sites in the newly uplifted mountain ranges of South and Central America, southeast Asia, and the High Archipelago, where they diversified. Thus the late Cenozoic evolution of magnolias is characterised by impoverishment of northern, and diversification of southern species, the latter being driven by a combination of high relief and climate oscillations, and neither of the present centres of diversity is the centre of origin. Magnolioideae appear to consist of only the genus Magnolia.

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Pingting Chen, Jun Wen and Longqing Chen
Spatial and temporal diversification of Tetrastigma (Vitaceae) [Page 307 - 327]
Abstract:
The spatial and temporal diversification of Tetrastigma Planch., a genus of the grape family Vitaceae with a wide distribution throughout subtropical and tropical Asia to Australia, was examined through phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses. The times of divergence within Tetrastigma were estimated with the Bayesian approach based on sequence data from four plastid (atpB-rbcL, rps16, trnL-F, and psbA-trnH) markers using the computer program BEAST. The divergence time between Tetrastigma and its closely relative Cayratia was estimated as the early Eocene around 50.6 million years ago (mya), with 95% HPD: 36.3–65.3 mya. The age of the crown group of Tetrastigma was dated to be late Eocene (36.9 mya, with 95% HPD: 25.7–49.3 mya). Biogeographic analyses using LAGRANGE suggested that the Sino–Himalayan region (and the adjacent Indochina) was the most likely ancestral area for Tetrastigma. Most Tetrastigma species sampled from the Malesian region were nested within clades of the Sino–Himalayan and Indochina region. A few Malesian species primarily from SE Sulawesi, the Philippines and New Guinea are not associated with the Sino–Himalayan and Indochina species and formed separated clades. The results suggest that Tetrastigma species in the Malesian region have complex biogeographic origins and continental Asia served as an important source area for the Malesian members of the genus.

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Peter C. van Welzen and Niels Raes
The floristic position of Java [Page 329 - 339]
Abstract:
Floristically, Java was always considered to be west of Wallace’s line together with the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and Sulawesi. Recently, statistical analyses of rough geographic data per species (presence or absence on islands or island groups) showed that Java is part of the central Wallacean area in Malesia (together with also the Philippines, Sulawesi, the Lesser Sunda Islands, and the Moluccas) rather than of Sundaland (restricted to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo). More precise distribution maps for Java with collecting localities show that most species are widespread over Java or show a (more) western distribution; few species show an eastern distribution. The distributions show strong correlations with altitude (mountain species) and with precipitation (roughly wet in the west, dry in the east). The expectation was to find mainly species with a drought preference (Wallacean). However, most species show a preference for a wet distribution, which is related
to a Sunda distribution. The fact that the statistical tests used for the first database show a Wallacean connection for Java probably is the result of the relative values these test use instead of absolute numbers, e.g., the resemblance between, especially, the flora of the Lesser Sunda Islands with Java is very high.

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Mohammed Kamrul Huda and Christopher C. Wilcock
Colonisation and diversity of epiphytic orchids on trees in disturbed and undisturbed forests in the Asian tropics [Page 341 - 356]
Abstract:
Orchids are the most diverse group of epiphytes with more than two thirds of all their species being epiphytic, yet they are comparatively little studied. Colonisation, diversity and distribution of epiphytic orchids and their phorophytes (supporting trees) at 72 sites in disturbed and undisturbed natural forests of south-eastern Bangladesh were studied within a 21,070 km2 area. No evidence of phorophyte specificity was found, but some phorophyte species were preferred. Most phorophytes (76%) bore only a single species of orchid in one clump. Both orchid and phorophyte species were diverse but 30% of epiphytic orchid species were restricted to a single tree. Larger trees and trees in richer orchid areas accumulated more orchids. Colonisation by an epiphytic orchid is a rare and random event, the presence of one orchid neither attracting nor repelling others on the same phorophyte. The data suggest that the frequency of colonisation by epiphytic orchids is primarily a function of the age of the phorophyte (with greater age allowing both more time and more surfaces to accumulate seeds on them) and the existing orchid richness of an area (allowing for a higher colonisation rate from local seed input). Selective logging of the oldest trees in an area would therefore cause a decline in epiphytic orchid abundance and further loss in orchid richness of the area.

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Didik Widyatmoko
Habitat and ecological preferences of Hydriastele costata (Palmae) in Waigeo Island, West Papua [Page 357 - 374]
Abstract:
The research was conducted to test hypotheses about the significance and influence of edaphic parameters and association patterns in governing the occurrence and abundance of the karst palm Hydriastele costata and its co-occurrence with other plant species in Waigeo Island, West Papua. The results indicate that a number of interrelating edaphic factors influence the palm’s occurrence and abundance. The palm showed a preference for dry, well-drained soil, with high magnesium (Mg2+) content. Most colonies occurred in localities where Mg2+ content was very high. High alkaline concentrations also strongly corresponded to the presence of the emergent palm. Six of 15 tropical plant species were positively associated while the rest were negatively associated with H. costata. Four species (Casuarina rumphiana, Decaspermum bracteatum, Baeckea frutescens, and Pinanga rumphiana were strongly associated with H. costata, as indicated by their high association degrees using the Ochiai indices. The palm P. rumphiana appears to have similar habitat requirements as H. costata. The xerophytic palm H. costata tended to occupy sites with medium carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios where all sampled populations occurred in habitats with average C/N values more than 10. Based on the r-squared values, exchangeable Mg2+ and calcium (Ca2+) appeared to have more influence on plant density and frequency than on crown and basal areas. The exchangeable Ca2+ contents showed a similar pattern to Mg2+ concentrations. Curiously, potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), aluminium (Al3+) and hydrogen (H+) contents did not show significant relationships with the palm abundance parameters.

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K.M. Wong and Y.W. Low
Hybrid zone characteristics of the intergeneric hybrid bamboo × Gigantocalamus malpenensis (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 375 - 383]
Abstract:
The research was conducted to test hypotheses about the significance and influence of edaphic parameters and association patterns in governing the occurrence and abundance of the karst palm Hydriastele costata and its co-occurrence with other plant species in Waigeo Island, West Papua. The results indicate that a number of interrelating edaphic factors influence the palm’s occurrence and abundance. The palm showed a preference for dry, well-drained soil, with high magnesium (Mg2+) content. Most colonies occurred in localities where Mg2+ content was very high. High alkaline concentrations also strongly corresponded to the presence of the emergent palm. Six of 15 tropical plant species were positively associated while the rest were negatively associated with H. costata. Four species (Casuarina rumphiana, Decaspermum bracteatum, Baeckea frutescens, and Pinanga rumphiana were strongly associated with H. costata, as indicated by their high association degrees using the Ochiai indices. The palm P. rumphiana appears to have similar habitat requirements as H. costata. The xerophytic palm H. costata tended to occupy sites with medium carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios where all sampled populations occurred in habitats with average C/N values more than 10. Based on the r-squared values, exchangeable Mg2+ and calcium (Ca2+) appeared to have more influence on plant density and frequency than on crown and basal areas. The exchangeable Ca2+ contents showed a similar pattern to Mg2+ concentrations. Curiously, potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), aluminium (Al3+) and hydrogen (H+) contents did not show significant relationships with the palm abundance parameters.

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A. van der Ent
The ecology of ultramafic areas in Sabah: threats and conservation needs [Page 385 - 393]
Abstract:
Ultramafics are characterised by high concentrations of magnesium and nickel, low concentrations of calcium, low water retention capacity and low concentrations of essential plant nutrients in soils derived from this substrate. These extreme chemical soil condition force plants to adapt to survive. Sabah is one of the richest areas in the world for plant diversity on ultramafic substrates. A range of species, including a number of pitcher plants (Nepenthaceae), orchids (Orchidaceae) and trees and shrubs are endemic to ultramafic areas in Sabah, often occurring on a few, or even just a single, site. Ultramafic vegetation types in Sabah are severely threatened by land-clearing activities. Although only a small minority of the geological substrates in Sabah are ultramafic, ecosystems on these substrates have a disproportionately high number of endemic and rare plant species. Destruction of these types of ecosystems, in particular, can potentially result in extinction of plant species.

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Teodora D. Balangcod, Virginia C. Cuevas and Ashlyn Kim D. Balangcod
Cultivation and conservation of Lilium philippinense (Liliaceae), the Philippine endemic Benguet Lily [Page 395 - 407]
Abstract:
Lilium philippinense, endemic to the Cordillera Administrative Region (CCR) of the Philippines, grows on steep mountain slopes of Benguet and the southwestern part of the Mountain province. The flowers, fragrant and used as wedding decorations, occur from late May to July. Recent observations indicate declining populations of this species, which is said to be difficult to grow. Under greenhouse conditions, seed and bulb germination show only 27.63% and 16.67% success, respectively. The apparently acute sensitivity of this species to environmental factors such as soil pH, light, humidity, air and soil temperature, and possibilities for ex situ cultivation, are discussed.

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Ashlyn Kim D. Balangcod
Predicting distribution of Lilium philippinense (Liliaceae) over Luzon’s Cordillera Central Range, Philippines, using ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst [Page 409 - 423]
Abstract:
The growing importance of geographical information system (GIS)-based output in the analysis of biodiversity data is due to its convenient method of spatial analysis of data and prediction of plant geographical distribution. The Interpolated Distance Weight Method (IDW) of ArcMap ArcGIS 9 was used to determine possible areas of Lilium philippinense, endemic to the Cordillera Central Range (CCR) and declining in population due to habitat destruction, swidden activities and over-collecting. The variables considered in this study are soil pH, soil phosphorus content, organic matter, elevation, latitude and longitude. All variables were studied from actual L. philippinense sites and, using IDW, prediction maps were generated that identified areas where L. philippinense are likely to thrive. The Geostatistical Analyst of ArcGIS is a useful tool for predicting potential sites for introduction of L. philippinense as an extended in-situ conservation strategy.

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Y.M. Chan, L.S.L. Chua and L.G. Saw
Towards the conservation of Malaysian Johannesteijsmannia (Palmae) [Page 425 - 432]
Abstract:
A total of 20 new localities were recorded for the genus Johannesteijsmannia since 1972, demonstrating that the genus is less restricted in its distribution in Malaysia than previously thought. Nevertheless, Johannesteijsmannia is regarded as threatened with J. lanceolata, J. magnifica and J. perakensis assessed as endangered and J. altifrons as vulnerable. Endangered status was given to endemic species with restricted occurrence and small population size found in less than five localities. Recommended conservation measures include the need to expand in situ protection for populations in vulnerable habitats, inclusion of the species into forest management plans, and establishment of a sustainable seed harvesting regime. We also suggest regular monitoring of populations situated along forest boundaries and initiation of long-term conservation biology research. Habitats at risk in Jerantut-Benta (for J. lanceolata), Serendah and Bukit Kinta Forest Reserves (for J. magnifica), and Perak, i.e., Bintang Hijau, Kledang-Saiong and Bubu Forest Reserves (for J. perakensis) should be given protected status and ex situ conservation should be implemented.

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R. Kiew, A.R. Ummul-Nazrah & L.S.L. Chua
Conservation status of Paraboea species (Gesneriaceae) in Malaysia [Page 433 - 450]
Abstract:
Paraboea (including Trisepalum) is represented by 36 species in Malaysia and displays a high level of endemism (80%) and 31 of its species are restricted to limestone habitats. Two species are endemic in Sabah, of the 11 species in Sarawak 10 are endemic, and in Peninsular Malaysia 16 of the 24 species are endemic. Paraboea culminicola K.G.Pearce and P. obovata Ridl. are reinstated as distinct species and P. madaiensis Z.R.Xu & B.L.Burtt is reduced to synonomy in P. sabahensis Z.R.Xu & B.L.Burtt. Based on information from the Taxon Data Information Sheet, 15 species fall within the IUCN Category of Least Concern, four as Near Threatened, three as Vulnerable, eight as Endangered, four as Critically Endangered, and three as Data Deficient. None is Extinct. Most of the endangered species (94%) grow in Peninsular Malaysia on limestone hills that do not lie within the network of Totally Protected Areas and which are threatened by burning, quarrying and habitat destruction or disturbance, from resort development or recreation or temple activities. Assignment of conservation status is the first step in planning conservation management of endangered species, through advocating legal protection of a network of limestone hills, particularly those where critically endangered species grow (e.g., Tambun Hot Springs, Perak and the Lambok hills, Kelantan), monitoring populations of Critically Endangered species, taking steps towards resolving the status of the poorly known Data Deficient species, and the establishment of endangered species ex situ.

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M.Y. Chew and N.W. Haron
Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) habitat diversity in Peninsular Malaysia and its implications for conservation [Page 451 - 464]
Abstract:
Utricularia is a cosmopolitan carnivorous genus with more than 30 species in Malesia, of which 14 occur in Peninsular Malaysia. Utricularia species exhibit a range of habits including free-floating or affixed aquatic, semi-aquatic, terrestrial, lithophytic or epiphytic. In terms of habitat preference, three arbitrary groups are recognised, namely, habitat specialists, habitat generalists, and open and wayside pioneers. This grouping allows information on niches to be interpreted into conservation management measures. One third of the Peninsular Malaysian species are habitat specialists, found either in single localities or in one microhabitat. Among them, U. furcellata and U. scandens are listed as ‘Critically Endangered’ for the Red List for Peninsular Malaysia, whereas U. involvens and U. punctata are ‘Vulnerable’ and U. vitellina is ‘Rare’. Four species, U. caerulea, U. gibba, U. striatula and U. uliginosa, are found in many sites and microhabitats and are thus considered generalists, with their conservation status varying from ‘Vulnerable’ to ‘Least Concern’. Utricularia aurea, U. bifida and U. minutissima are adaptable pioneers able to co-exist with weeds and they may also be indicators of past disturbance. Two rare species, U. limosa and U. subulata, have not been relocated recently and their local habitat preferences are uncertain.

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Julisasi T. Hadiah
Establishment of Enrekang Botanic Garden, South Sulawesi: an effort to conserve plant diversity in the Wallacea region [Page 465 - 470]
Abstract:
The Enrekang Botanic Garden is newly established in Kabupaten Enrekang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, to document and conserve the diversity of plants from the Wallacea Region. The new botanic garden is a collaborative venture since 2005, in which Kebun Raya Bogor is assisting the local authorities of Sulawesi Selatan to form a development plan and establish the garden’s living collections. The garden has developed nursery facilities, an irrigation system, and road access. A total of 4601 living plants have been planted, representing 36 families, 156 genera and 232 species.

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E.H.S. Chin and A.L. Lim
Comparative pollen morphology of three Alternanthera species (Amaranthaceae) [Page 471 - 483]
Abstract:
The pollen morphology of three Alternanthera species, A. sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC., A. bettzickiana (Regel) G.Nicholson and A. paronychioides A.St.-Hil., is reported. Pollen grains of Alternanthera are dodecahedric, isopolar and small (12.56–23.57µm). The pollen morphology of the green and red varieties of A. sessilis shows no significant difference in the polar length [t (98) = -1.35, p > 0.05] and equatorial diameter [t (98) = 1.32, p > 0.05]. Apertures of A. sessilis and A. bettzickiana are pantoporate with twelve round pores, whereas the pollen grains of A. paronychioides distinctly differ from the other two species in having eighteen oval pores. The pores of all the species are covered by rectangular, sinuous, or elongated ektexinous bodies. The sexine is metareticulate and tectum perforate with unevenly distributed perforations at the top and base of the mesoporia, except in the pollen grains of A. bettzickiana, in which the perforations are distributed unevenly at the top of the mesoporia only.

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Wiguna Rahman
Flower biology of four epiphytic Malesian Gesneriads [Page 485 - 493]
Abstract:
Floral traits, flowering events, nectar production and reproductive success of Aeschynanthus horsfieldii R.Br., A. pulcher (Blume) G.Don, A. longiflorus A.DC. and Agalmyla parasitica C.B. Clarke were observed for sympatric populations in the Cibodas area, Mount Gede-Pangrango, West Java. All traits were significantly different among the species, but were associated with a bird pollination syndrome. Many flowers of Aeschynanthus longiflorus and Agalmyla parasitica failed to develop mature stigmas. Agalmyla parasitica flowers take a longer time to attract pollinators and receive pollen than the others and the filaments begin to bend earlier than the others. Aeschynanthus pulcher produces more nectar than the other species at the female phase, but the concentration was lower than in Aeschynanthus horsfieldii and Agalmyla parasitica. These seem to be correlated with the reproductive success of the respective species, with flowers of Aeschynanthus longiflorus and Agalmyla parasitica setting fewer fruit than the other two species. Flower traits and pollination shift are discussed in light of evidence that Aeschynanthus horsfieldii also attracts bumble bees (Bombus rucifes).

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Rogier de Kok
The genus Premna (Lamiaceae) and the presence of ‘pyro-herbs’ in the Flora Malesiana area [Page 495 - 498]
Abstract:
The genus Premna consists of 14 species in the Flora Malesiana area. The most common species in the region are all widespread. However, a series of morphologically closely-related, rare and generally geographically more restricted species are present in the region. These species can be characterised by three distinct morphological characters: 1) small decussate scales at the base of the young twigs, 2) a calyx that always has four isomorphic lobes, 3) a fruit that is clavoid in shape and almost single-seeded. The ecology and morphology of Premna herbacea Roxb. is unique in the genus and is the first recognised ‘pyro-herb’ in the Flora Malesiana area.

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Netty W. Surya and M. Idris
A preliminary study on in vitro seed germination and rooted callus formation of Tetrastigma rafflesiae (Vitaceae) [Page 499 - 505]
Abstract:
In vitro seed germination and induction of rooted callus formation was investigated as a preliminary study on the propagation of Tetrastigma rafflesiae as potential host plant material towards a sustainable conservation effort for Rafflesia. Seed germination of T. rafflesiae is epigeal with seedling emergence ranging 30–60 days after planting (dap), regardless of light presence. After 60 days, 54–60% of seeds germinated in media treatments. Callus formation began 7 dap in MS medium + 2 mg/L NAA, and 21 dap in MS medium + 2 mg/L 2,4-D. Browning of this medium due to phenolic compounds resulted from cutting a part of the hypocotyl. Rooting of the callus was obtained after 21 days on MS medium + 2 mg/L NAA, but was not evident with addition of 2 mg/L 2,4-D.

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A.T. Nor-Ezzawanis
Comparative anatomy of Grammitidaceae genera in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 507 - 517]
Abstract:
Grammitidaceae is represented by 12 genera and 52 species in Peninsular Malaysia. The rhizome morphology and anatomy of Peninsular Malaysian Grammitidaceae were studied to determine whether it can be used as a supplementary character in generic delimitation. Two types of rhizome (creeping dorsiventral or erect), three types of stipe arrangement on the rhizome (in horizontal rows, in whorls or spiral) and two types of stele (solenostele or dictyostele) were identified.

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Vera Budi Lestari Sihotang
Ethnomedicinal study of the Sundanese people at the Bodogol area, Gede Pangrango Mountain National Park, West Java [Page 519 - 526]
Abstract:
Traditional medicine is often considered adequate even in present times, especially when modern medical treatment is diffficult to obtain. Indonesia, a country with rich biodiversity and a multicultural society, has a wealth of medicinal plant knowledge. Observations on the ethnomedicinal practices of the Sundanese people, conducted in several villages (Cipeucang, Ciwaluh, Lengkong Girang, Lengkong Hilir and Sungapan) around the Bodogol area in West Java, are summarised.

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Year of Publication: 2011, Vol. 62 (2)

Date Published March 2011
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R. Cámara-Leret and J.F. Veldkamp
A remarkable new Medinilla (Melastomataceae) from Celebes (Sulawesi), Indonesia [Page 213 -222]
Abstract:
A new species of Medinilla (Melastomataceae) from Celebes, Indonesia, is described. It is a terrestrial shrub or treelet with specialised leafless inflorescence-bearing, many-branched branches at the base of the boles. It is clearly distinct in habit, branch-, leaf-, flower- and fruit morphology from the few other species that are reported to have this type of flowering.

W.L. Goh, S. Chandran, K. Kamiya and K.M. Wong
A natural hybrid between Dendrocalamus pendulus and Gigantochloa scortechinii (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae) in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 223 - 228]
Abstract:
A natural inter-generic bamboo hybrid between Dendrocalamus pendulus and Gigantochloa scortechinii is reported for Peninsular Malaysia. The hybrid has some morphological characteristics of each parent but also shows intermediacy between the parents. We demonstrate the hybridisation using the partial Granule-Bound Starch Synthase
(GBSS) I gene sequence. The nothogenus × Gigantocalamus K.M. Wong and nothospecies × Gigantocalamus malpenensis K.M.Wong are proposed for the hybrid. We suggest that chloroplast introgression could have occurred among the parental taxa or their ancestors and that the significance of introgressive hybridisation in the complex taxonomic relationships of woody tropical bamboos in SE Asian Bambuseae has not been fully appreciated.

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Mark Hughes and Deden Girmansyah
A revision of Begonia sect. Sphenanthera (Hassk.) Warb. (Begoniaceae) from Sumatra [Page 239 - 252]
Abstract:
Begonia sect. Sphenanthera is characterised by robust herbs with fleshy fruits. Three species are recognised from Sumatra (Begonia longifolia Blume, B. multangula Blume and B. scottii Tebbitt) and three names have been reduced to synonyms (B. sarcocarpa Ridl. and B. turbinata Ridl. = B. longifolia Blume and B. trigonocarpa Ridl. = B. multangula Blume). All species are considered to belong to the IUCN category Least Concern as they have wide distributions within Sumatra and are known from several localities.

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R. Kiew and C.L. Lim
Names and new combinations for Peninsular Malaysian species of Codonoboea Ridl.(Gesneriaceae) [Page 253 - 276]
Abstract:
Five species are reinstated in Codonoboea Ridl. and new combinations are made for 74 species that occur in Peninsular Malaysia that were formerly included in Henckelia Spreng. Codonoboea albina (Ridl.) Kiew is reinstated at specific rank and var. winkleri (Ridl.) Kiew as a variety of C. malayana (Ridl.) Kiew. Lectotypes are designated where appropriate.

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Kiaw Kiaw Ng, P.C. Boyce and S. Othman
Studies on Homalomeneae (Araceae) of Peninsular Malaysia II: An historical and taxonomic review of the genus Homalomena (excluding Chamaecladon) [Page 277 - 290]
Abstract:
An historical and taxonomic review of Homalomena (excluding species assigned to the Chamaecladon Supergroup sensu Boyce & Wong) for Peninsular Malaysia is presented. Five species are recognised of which one, H. truncata (Schott) Hook.f. represents a new species record for the Peninsula. Keys to the Peninsular Malaysian Supergroups and species, and a taxonomic conspectus, are provided. Three species are illustrated from living plants, and H. wallichii from the type specimen. An historical and taxonomic review of Homalomena (excluding species assigned to the Chamaecladon Supergroup sensu Boyce & Wong) for Peninsular Malaysia is presented. Five species are recognised of which one, H. truncata (Schott) Hook.f. represents a new species record for the Peninsula. Keys to the Peninsular Malaysian Supergroups and species, and a taxonomic conspectus, are provided. Three species are illustrated from living plants, and H. wallichii from the type specimen.

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V.D. Nguyen and P.C. Boyce
Pycnospatha (Araceae: Lasioideae), a new generic record for the flora of Cambodia and Vietnam [Page 291 - 296]
Abstract:
Pycnospatha arietina Gagnep. (Araceae–Lasioideae) is recorded as a new species and genus record for Cambodia and Vietnam. An updated species description and a key to both species of Pycnospatha are provided. The Cambodian plant is figured.

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C. Rattamanee, S. Sungkaew and Y. Paisooksantivatana
Additional notes on Maclurochloa montana (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in Thailand [Page 297 - 300]
Abstract:
The bamboo genus, Maclurochloa K.M.Wong, hitherto known by a single species from Peninsular Malaysia, M. montana (Ridl.) K.M.Wong, is here recorded with certainty for Thailand. Additional details of morphology based on Thai specimens and illustrations are provided.

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J.F. Veldkamp
The nomenclature of Uvaria velutina Roxb. ex Blume (Annonaceae) [Page 301 - 306]
Abstract:
The nomenclature of Uvaria velutina Roxb. ex Blume (Annonaceae) is clarified.

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K.M. Wong
Steenisia (Rubiaceae) newly recorded for mainland Asia with a new variety of S. pleurocarpa (Airy Shaw) Bakh.f. [Page 307 - 312]
Abstract:
Mussaendopsis malayana T.Yamaz. (Rubiaceae), described based on material from the Malay Peninsula, is a distinct variety of Steenisia pleurocarpa (Airy Shaw) Bakh.f. It represents a new record for mainland Asia of Steenisia Bakh.f., a genus otherwise endemic to Borneo and the Natuna islands. The new combination Steenisia pleurocarpa var. malayana (T.Yamaz.) K.M.Wong is made.

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Sin Yeng Wong, P.C. Boyce and B.A. Fasihuddin
Studies on Homalomeneae (Araceae) of Borneo III: The helophytic Homalomena of Sunda [Page 313 - 327]
Abstract:
An account of the helophytic Homalomena in Sunda is presented. Two species are recognized: H. expedita A.Hay & Hersc. and H. rostrata Griff., neither novel. Homalomena expedita is so far endemic to Sarawak, where it is known from three widely separated sites. Homalomena rostrata is widespread from Sumatera through Peninsular Malaysia to Borneo, and onwards to Maluku (Pulau Ceram). Throughout its range H. rostrata is morphologically plastic, such that it has accrued a considerable synonymy, proposed here: Homalomena beccariana Engl., H. ensiformis Alderw., H. miqueliana Schott, H. miqueliana var. truella Alderw., H. paludosa Hook.f., H. propinqua Schott, H. raapii Engl., H. sagittifolia Jungh. ex Schott, H. sagittifolia var. angustifolia Furtado, H. sagittifolia var. pontederiifolia Ridl. (including
homotypic H. ridleyana Engl.), H. sagittifolia var. sumatrana Alderw., H. teysmannii Engl., and H. triangularis Alderw. An overview of the occurrence of helophytism in Araceae, together with speculations on the evolution of helophytism in Homalomena, a key to the species, and illustrations of both species are presented.

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T.L. Yao
Ginalloa siamica var. scortechinii is a species of Viscum (Viscaceae) [Page 327 - 328]
Abstract:
Ginalloa Korth. is not represented in Peninsular Malaysia. Ginalloa siamica Craib var. scortechinii Gamble, known only from the type specimen, is conspecific with Viscum ovalifolium Wall. ex DC.

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Year of Publication: 2010, Vol. 62 (1)

Date Published August 2010
Ahmad Sofiman bin O. and P.C. Boyce
Studies on Monstereae (Araceae) of Peninsular Malaysia II: Rhaphidophora latevaginata, newly recorded for West Malaysia [Page 1 - 8]
Abstract:
Rhaphidophora latevaginata M.Hotta, a neotenic, shingling, climbing aroid, hitherto considered a Bornean endemic, has recently been found and collected from the southern part of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (Johor: Kota Tinggi and Mersing), where so far it appears to be restricted to kerapah and the drier (raised podzol) facies of seasonally inundated peatswamp forest. This discovery of R. latevaginata takes to 18 the number of Rhaphidophora known to occur in Peninsular Malaysia, of which three are endemic. An updated description of R. latevaginata, a key to the Rhaphidophora species of Peninsular Malaysia, and a plate illustrating the diagnostic characters of those with shingle-stage juveniles is presented. A brief note on the significance of the new record with regard the Riau Pocket is made.   

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Ahmad Sofiman bin O., P.C. Boyce and Chan L.-K.
Studies on Monstereae (Araceae) of Peninsular Malaysia III: Scindapsus lucens, a New Record for Malaysia, and a Key to Peninsular Malaysian Scindapsus [Page 9 - 16]
Abstract:
Scindapsus lucens Bogner & P.C.Boyce is a species of considerable horticultural potential, arguably rivalling the commercially important S. pictus, originally described from cultivated material of unknown provenance and only later found wild in Sumatera. It has recently been discovered and collected from several localities in southern Peninsular Malaysia, representing both a new record for Malaysia, and through clonal propagation via various tissue culture techniques would supply a sustainable potential source of a local commercial ornamental horticultural product. An enlarged description of S. lucens, and a key to the Peninsular Malaysian Scindapsus are offered. A plate illustrating the diagnostic characters of S. lucens is given.

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Ardi, W.H. and M. Hughes
Begonia droopiae Ardi (Begoniaceae), a New Species of Begonia from West Sumatra [Page 17 - 22]
Abstract:
A new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae), B. droopiae Ardi, is described from the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It belongs to Begonia sect. Reichenheimia and is a limestone endemic in the Sawah Lunto District. Its IUCN threatened category is considered to be ‘Vulnerable’.

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Arifiani, D.
Newly Recorded Endiandra R. Br. (Lauraceae) from Waigeo Island, Raja Ampat, Papua, Indonesia [Page 23 - 30]
Abstract:
Endiandra trees are not frequently encountered in the forest in Indonesia. Recent exploration in Waigeo Island resulted in the collection of three species of Endiandra. All three species were collected for the first time from Waigeo Island. The three species are restricted in distribution to eastern part of Indonesia (Papua Province) and Papua New Guinea. Key to the species and species description are provided.

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Atik R.
Species of Marasmius (Agaricales: Tricholomataceae) from Kayan Mentarang National Park, East Kalimantan, Indonesia [Page 31- 42]
Abstract:
Five species of Marasmius were encountered from forest surrounding Pa’raye village at Kayan Mentarang National Park, East Kalimantan; three of them are described as new taxa (1 new species and 2 new varieties).The five species of Marasmius are M. cf. purpureostriatus, M. guyanensis,
M. coklatus var. mentarangensis, var. nov., M. caryote var. parayeensis, var. nov., and M. gypseus, sp. nov. Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations, and comparison with similar taxa are presented.

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Hadiah, J.T. and B.J. Conn
Lectotypification of Elatostema subscabrum H.Schroet. (Urticaceae) [Page 43 - 52]
Abstract:
Descriptions of Elatostema sessile J.R.Forst. & G.Forst and E. subscabrum H.Schroet. (Urticaceae) are provided to clarify the morphological differences between these two species. The lectotype of E. subscabrum H.Schroet. (Urticaceae) is here selected.

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Haerida, I., S.R. Gradstein and S.S. Tjitrosoedirdjo
Lejeuneaceae subfamily Ptychanthoideae (Hepaticae) in West Java [Page 53 - 104]
Abstract:
The subfamily Ptychanthoideae of the family Lejeuneaceae (Hepaticae) in West Java is still poorly known. A study of Ptychanthoideae in this area reveals the occurrence of 26 species, in 8 genera: Acrolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. (3 species), Archilejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. (1 species),
Lopholejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. (10 species), Mastigolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. (3 species), Ptychanthus Nees (1 species), Schiffneriolejeunea Verd. (2 species), Spruceanthus Verd. (2 species) and Thysananthus Lindenb. (4 species). Mastigolejeunea indica and Thysananthus minor are newly
reported for Java. The altitudinal and geographical ranges of the species of Ptychanthoideae from West Java are presented as well as a key to the species and an assessment of their phytogeography. It appears that the species are rather widespread; none of the species are endemic to Java or
western Malesia. The widespread distribution of the species is probably due to their dispersal by spores, which may be easily carried by the wind over long distances, and by the rather old geological age of the group.

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Kurzweil, H., S. Watthana and S. Lwin
Phaius takeoi (Orchidaceae) Newly Recorded from Thailand and Myanmar [Page 105 - 110]
Abstract:
The occurrence of Phaius takeoi (Hayata) H.J. Su (Orchidaceae), previously only known in mainland China, Vietnam and Taiwan, is here reported for Thailand and Myanmar.

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Leong-Škorničková, J., Tran H.-D. and M.F. Newman
Curcuma vitellina (Zingiberaceae), a New Species from Vietnam [Page 111 - 118]
Abstract:
Curcuma vitellina, a new species of Zingiberaceae from Tây Nguyên, Vietnam, is described, illustrated and compared to its closest ally, C. pierreana.

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Lindsay, S.
New Combinations in Haplopteris (Adiantaceae) for the Flora of Peninsular Malaysia [Page 119 - 120]
Abstract:
Two new combinations are made here: Haplopteris hirta (Fée) S.Linds. And Haplopteris angustissima (Holttum) S.Linds.

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Nor-Ezzawanis, A.T.
New Combinations in Malaysian Staphyleaceae [Page 127 - 134]
Abstract:
New combinations are made for the seven species of Dalrympelea (Staphyleaceae) from Malaysia that were previously included in Turpinia. Dalrympelea pomifera Roxb. is distinct from D. sphaerocarpa (Hassk.) A.T.Nor-Ezzawanis and does not occur in Malaysia and Turpinia ovalifolia Elmer from the Philippines is distinct from D. trifoliata (Ridl.) A.T.Nor-Ezzawanis.

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Poulsen, A.D. and C.D. Specht
A New Species of Costaceae from Borneo [Page 135 - 142]
Abstract:
A new species, Cheilocostus borneensis, is described. Specimens were collected in Sarawak in 1987 and Kalimantan in 2000, but only intensified surveys of gingers in Sarawak in 2002-2004 provided sufficient collections to recognize the new species, which is here described and illustrated. It is closely related to the widespread C. globosus from which it differs by the chocolate-brown sheaths, absence of axillary shoots on vegetative stems, larger leathery leaves, and by its calyx that is not prickly.

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 Rajbhandary, S., M. Hughes and K.K. Shrestha
Three New Species of Begonia Sect. Platycentrum from Nepal [Page 143 - 154]
Abstract:
Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) are described from Nepal. All three species (Begonia nuwakotensis S. Rajbhandary, Begonia panchtharensis S. Rajbhandary and Begonia taligera S. Rajbhandary) belong to Begonia section Platycentrum, and they increase the number of Begonia species known from Nepal to 22. All are considered to belong to the IUCN threat category VUD2.

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Sudarmono and B.J. Conn
Genetic Variation of Populations of Scutellaria slametensis and S. discolor [Page 155 - 172]
Abstract:
Genetic variation within and between populations of Scutellaria slametensis Sudarmono & B.J.Conn and S. discolor Colebr. on Gunung Slamet (Jawa Tengah, Indonesia) are evaluated by allozyme electrophoresis. Gels stained by 4 enzyme systems, namely, Aspartate aminotransferase (Aat), Esterase (Est), Malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) and Peroxidase (Per), were used to evaluate the number of polymorphic loci. The mean of total number of observed alleles per locus (A), mean of total number of effective alleles per locus (Ae), percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp%), and expected genetic heterozygosity (He) have been generated as parameters of genetic variation. The interpopulation genetic differentiation (FST) and estimated geographic distance between populations were used to evaluate the correlation between genetic differentiation and geographic effect. It was found that S. slametensis is genetically distinct from S. discolor (D = 1.4572). The mean genetic variation of S. slametensis (Pp = 75 %, A = 2.00, HE = 0.450) is greater than that of S. discolor (Pp = 25 %, A = 1.25, HE = 0.125). Almost all loci of the latter species are monomorphic and homozygotic, especially population 9 near Baturaden (Pp = 0%; HE = 0; Allele frequencies all = 1). There is a moderately high degree of variation between populations of these two species (FST = 0.585, SE ± 0.092), whereas within-population variation is low (1–FST = 0.415). Both species are out-breeding (at subpopulation level: FIS
= -0.973, SE ± 0.015; and population level: FIT = 0.180, SE ± 0.183), with low levels of gene flow within and between populations (Nm = 0.249, SE ± 0.065). The chromosome number of S. slametensis and S. discolor is 2n = 24.

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Turner. I.M.
A new species of Polyalthia (Annonaceae) from Sabah [Page 173- 176]
Abstract:
Polyalthia lasioclada I.M. Turner, sp. nov. is described. It is a small tree known from the Mount Kinabalu area of Sabah.

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Wong S.Y.
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo XIII: A Revision of the Schismatoglottis nervosa Species Complex [Page 177- 210]
Abstract:
A revision of the Schismatoglottis nervosa Ridl. species complex is presented. Ten species are recognized, of which three species are pre-existing (S. nervosa, S. elegans A.Hay, and S. brevicuspis Hook.f.) and seven are novel and described here (Schismatoglottis adoceta S.Y. Wong, S. linae S.Y. Wong, S. matangensis S.Y.Wong, S. simonii S.Y.Wong, S. tessellata S.Y. Wong, S. turbata S.Y. Wong, and S. ulusarikeiensis S.Y. Wong.) The S. nervosa species complex is readily delimitated by the pungent terpenoid smell when the vegetative tissues are crushed, and by the presence of longitudinally ridged petioles. A key to the S. nervosa species complex is presented and all species are illustrated.

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Year of Publication: 2010, Vol. 61 (2)

Date Published March 2010
Boyce, P.C., I.B. Ipor and W.L.A. Hetterscheid
A Review of the White-flowered Amorphophallus (Araceae: Thomsonieae) Species in Sarawak [Page 249 - 268]
Abstract:
A review of the white-flowered Amorphophallus species in Sarawak is presented. A total of five species are recognized, four of which belong to the Eburneus Group and are restricted to limestone, and moreover, locally endemic: A. eburneus Bogner (Padawan and Tebedu areas), A. brachyphyllus Hett. (Bau), A. juliae sp. nov. (Merirai) and A. niahensis sp. nov. (Niah). A fifth species, Amorphophallus infundibuliformis Hett., A.Dearden & A.Vogel, of doubtful affinity, is widespread and locally abundant on a variety of substrates excluding limestone. A key to the white-flowered species in Sarawak is presented and all species are illustrated.

 
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Boyce, P.C., S.Y. Wong and Fasihuddin B.A.
Studies on Homalomeneae (Araceae) of Borneo II: The Homalomena of Nanga Sumpa (Batang Ai) – Novel and Pre-existing Taxa, and Notes on Iban Usages [Page 269 - 318]
Abstract:
Fieldwork targeting indigenous Homalomena at Nanga Sumpa, part of the Batang Ai drainage system (Sri Aman Divison, Sarawak) revealed 14 species of which six are novel and herewith described: Homalomena atrox P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasihuddin, H. clandestina P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasihuddin, H. hanneae P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasihuddin, H. sengkenyang P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasihuddin, H. symplocarpiifolia P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasihuddin, and H. vivens P.C.Boyce, S.Y.Wong & Fasihuddin. Of the six Homalomena species present at Batang Ai for which there are pre-existing names, two, H. borneensis Ridl. & H. humilis (Jack) Hook.f., are species complexes still awaiting a full taxonomic and systematic investigation, and are treated here as morpho-taxa to which we apply the earliest applicable epithet. The remaining four species with available names have only recently been described: H. geniculata M.Hotta (1967); H. vagans P.C.Boyce (1994), and H. josefii P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong, and H. pseudogeniculata P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong (2008). Additionally, two further species located during fieldwork, that while unarguably novel based on their vegetative morphology, were not located as fertile plants and have yet to flower in cultivation; they are here treated as sp. nov. A & B. Of the 14 species present at Batang Ai, five have significance in the ethnobotany of the indigenous Iban people of the Ai drainage, and of these five, four are novel. A key to the Homalomena in the Batang Ai drainage area is given, and all species are illustrated.

 
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Green, P.T., J. Claussen and D. J. O’Dowd
Lost for a Century: Rediscovery of the Endemic Ridley’s Jewel Orchid, Zeuxine exilis Ridl., on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean [Page 319- 326]
Abstract:
In a botanical expedition to Christmas Island in 1904, Sir Henry Ridley*, the first director of the Singapore Botanic Gardens, discovered and thereafter described an endemic ground orchid, Zeuxine exilis Ridl. Botanical expeditions and surveys over the century since the original discovery failed to relocate Z. exilis. We report here the rediscovery of Z. exilis in rainforest in the western section of the island, and in Ridley’s honour, propose “Ridley’s jewel orchid” as its common name. The distribution and conservation status of Z. exilis remains to be determined. Despite a century of ecological insults to this unique oceanic island, primarily through phosphate mining and the introduction of invasive species, the rediscovery of this endemic orchid renews hope that the imperiled biodiversity on this island is resilient and can be conserved.

 
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Kloppenburg, R. and S.V. Siar
New Species of Hoya (Apocynaceae) from Brunei and the Philippines [Page 327 - 334]
Abstract:
Two new species of Hoya collected from Brunei and the Philippines are described and illustrated with coloured photographs of the flower details.

 
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Kumar, P. and J.F. Veldkamp
Pecteilis rawatii (Orchidaceae), a New Species from India [Page 335 - 342]
Abstract:
Pecteilis rawatii, sp. nov. (Orchidaceae) is described and compared to its nearest ally, P. triflora.

 
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Liang, J., H. Zhu and Y.-X. Ma
Land Use, Land Cover Change and Conservation in the Dipterocarp Rain Forest Area of Southern Yunnan, China [Page 343 - 358]
Abstract:
Based on Landsat TM/ETM images from 1988, 2003 and field data of 2006, land uses and land cover changes were researched over 18 years in the dipterocarp rain forest area in Southern Yunnan of China. The expansion of rubber plantations has resulted in a dramatic decrease in natural forest cover, especially the tropical seasonal rain forest at lower elevation. In 1988, rubber plantations covered 765.06 ha which increased to 2,294.07 ha in 2003, with an annual rate of change at 13.32%. The pace of change increased after 2003, with a change of 213.69 ha per annum. The tropical seasonal rain forest has decreased by 111.35 ha per annum since 1988 in the study area. Arable lands increased during 1988 and 2003 but declined rapidly from 2003 to 2006 due to expansion of rubber plantations and the construction of reservoirs. There was an increase in water bodies from 2003 to 2006 as well as construction areas. Market prices, policies, increasing population, and the unregulated pursuit of commerce and trade, at times at the cost of the environment were the main driving forces of change. We suggest that local government takes strong action to regulate further expansion of rubber plantations and creates conditions for sustainable and harmonious development of economy, society and natural resources in biodiversity rich region of Southern Yunnan.

 
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Ly, N.S., S. Hul and J. Leong-Škorničková
Siliquamomum oreodoxa (Zingiberaceae): a New Species from Southern Vietnam [Page 359- 368]
Abstract:
The second species of Siliquamomum (Zingiberaceae), S. oreodoxa N.S.Ly & Škorničk., is described as new and illustrated. The two species in the genus are compared and a key is provided for their identification.

 
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Middleton, D.J.
Three New Species of Wrightia (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae) from Thailand [Page 369 - 378]
Abstract:
Three new species of Wrightia from Thailand are described: Wrightia karaketii D.J.Middleton, Wrightia tokiae D.J.Middleton and Wrightia poomae D.J.Middleton.

 
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Miettinen, O. and N. Hernawati
Two Basidiomycetes New to Indonesia, Pterygellus armeniacus and Rimbachia Leucobryi [Page 379 - 388]
Abstract:
Rimbachia leucobryi, a small pleurotoid agaric, is described as new to science. The species grew on living stems of Leucobryum sanctum in lowland rainforest. It is characterised by lamellate hymenophore, hymenial cystidia and small, ellipsoid spores. Pterygellus armeniacus, a bright-coloured stipitate stereoid species, is reported as new to Indonesia. The two species are illustrated.

 
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Nathi, Y., B.C. Tan and T. Seelanan
Ten New Records of Mosses from Doi Inthanon National Park in Thailand [Page 389 - 400]
Abstract:
Ten species of mosses collected from Doi Inthanon National Park are reported newly for the flora of Thailand. Of these, Rhizomnium and Oligotrichum are two new moss generic records for the country. The report includes notes on ecology, morphology, taxonomy, and distribution of the new species records.

 
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Reynolds, D.R.
Epifoliar Fungi of Singapore [Page 401 - 436]
Abstract:
This article is a discussion of the known epifoliar fungi from Singapore found in several worldwide Herbaria, and those collected by the author. Fifty species in 15 genera are reviewed and annotated. An additional twenty new combinations in Setameliola are proposed to contain Meliola species with an ascocarp bearing straight setae. Critical attention is given to the species concepts in Meliola and Polychaeton.

 
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Sipman, H.J.M.
A Conspectus of the Lichens (Lichenized Fungi) of Singapore [Page 437 - 482]
Abstract:
A total of 296 species of lichenized fungi are reported from Singapore and presented in an annotated list with local distributional information. It is based on herbarium and literature study and the fieldwork done in the year 2000. Unidentified samples suggest the figure to be an underestimation, while some of the listed species may have become extinct. Lists of synonyms and collectors are added.

 
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Staples, G.W.
A Checklist of Merremia (Convolvulaceae) in Australasia and the Pacific [Page 483 - 522]
Abstract:
A checklist of Merremia species is presented for Australasia and the Pacific. In total, 49 species are enumerated here. Total numbers of species are estimated by region and for the genus as a whole. Comments on the systematics and taxonomy of the genus are reported and several problematic species complexes are identified. An index of numbered specimens examined is included to facilitate curation and identification of herbarium specimens.

 
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Widodo, P., A. Hartana and T. Chikmawati
Syzygium subscandens (Myrtaceae), a New Species from Sumatra [Page 523- 526]
Abstract:
A new species of Syzygium Gaertn. from Sumatra is described and illustrated: Syzygium subscandens Widodo. Morphologically the new species is similar to S. garciniifolium, but differs in being a small tree and in having longer terminal and axillary panicles.

 
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Wong, S.Y.
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo XII: Three New Species of Schismatoglottis in the Multiflora Group [Page 527- 540]
Abstract:
Fieldwork since 2002 has revealed three novel taxa of Schismatoglottis in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Based on the presence of a free ligular portion to the petiolar sheath, these new taxa belong to the Multiflora Group sensu Hay and Yuxammi (2000). Here, these species, Schismatoglottis clausula S.Y.Wong, S. dulosa S.Y.Wong, and S. jitinae S.Y.Wong are described, and illustrated, and a key to the Multiflora Group in Sarawak is presented.

 
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Wong, S.Y. and P.C. Boyce
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo X. Pichinia, a New Genus from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo [Page 541 - 548]
Abstract:
Pichinia S.Y. Wong & P.C. Boyce is described as a new genus from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo with one species, Pichinia disticha S.Y. Wong & P.C. Boyce. This genus is, so far, known only from the type locality, Pichin, Serian, Bahagian Kuching, Sarawak. The genus is illustated and a key to the Schismatoglottideae is presented.

 
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