Year of Publication: 2013, Vol. 65 (2)

Date Published 24 December 2013
Wisnu H. Ardi, I.M. Ardhaka, M. Hughes, N.K.E. Undaharta, D. Girmansyah4 and S. Hidayat 
Two new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bali and Lombok [Page 135 - 142]
Two new species of Begonia, B. lugrae Ardhaka & Undaharta and B. sendangensis Ardi are described from Bali and Lombok, respectively. The species belong to Begonia section Reichenheimea. A checklist and identification key to the Bali and Lombok species of Begonia are provided.

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Edwino S. Fernando and Michele Rodda
Marsdenia purpurella (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a new species from the Philippines [Page 143 - 148]
Marsdenia purpurella Fernando & Rodda, a new species from the Philippines, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from all known species of Marsdenia from the Philippines in its rotate corolla lacking a corolline corona, simple umbelliform inflorescence, and very short peduncle.

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Ruth Kiew
Clarification of Hermann H. Kunstler’s botanical collecting localities in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 149 - 156]
Kunstler’s collections made in Gopeng, Perak, in 1880 had labels wrongly printed with ‘Larut’; herbarium specimens from Ulu Bubong, Ulu Kerling, and Sungai Kul were wrongly localised as from Perak instead of from Selangor; ‘G.M.’ on Kunstler’s labels from his 4th expedition to Gopeng in 1885, which included plants restricted to limestone, refers to Gunung Mesah south of Gopeng (not Gunung Megua or Gunung Malacca, names that do not exist, nor does it refer to Gunung Bujang Melaka, a granite peak south of Kampar, Perak); lastly ‘near G.M.’ probably refers to Gunung Tempurong, Perak. Paraboea capitata Ridl. and P. vulpina Ridl., both strict calcicoles, were not collected from G. Bujang Melaka as was reported by Ridley.

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Agung Kurniawan, Ni Putu Sri Asih, Yuzammi and Peter C. Boyce
Studies on the Araceae of the Lesser Sunda Islands I: New distribution records for Alocasia alba [Page 157 - 162]
Alocasia alba Schott is a new record for the islands of Bali and Lombok, in the Indonesian Lesser Sunda Islands. An expanded description is given, and the species illustrated from living plants. A key to species of Alocasia for the Lesser Sunda Islands is provided.

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H. Kurzweil
Calanthe punctata (Orchidaceae), a new species from southern Myanmar [Page 163 - 168]
A new species of Calanthe (Orchidaceae) from southern Myanmar is described and illustrated. The new species belongs to subgenus Preptanthe (Rchb.f.) Schltr. and is very distinctive with its upright and strongly red-dotted petals. Differences from C. labrosa (Rchb.f.) Hook.f. which appears to be its closest relative are discussed.

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J. Leong-Škorničková and H.Ð. Trần
Two new species of Curcuma subgen. Ecomata (Zingiberaceae) from southern Vietnam [Page 169 - 180]
Two new species of Curcuma subgenus Ecomata (Zingiberaceae) from southern Vietnam, C. newmanii Škorničk. and C. xanthella Škorničk., are described and illustrated here. Their similarities and differences from their closest allies in the subgenus Ecomata, C. singularis Gagnep. and C. flaviflora S.Q.Tong, are discussed.

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David J. Middleton and Pramote Triboun
A new species of Somrania (Gesneriaceae) from Thailand [Page 181 - 184]
The new species Somrania flavida D.J.Middleton & Triboun, from Khao Sok National Park in Surat Thani Province, Thailand, is described. It is the third species in this genus which is restricted to karst limestone habitats in Thailand. A key to the species of Somrania is provided.

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Pranee Nangngam and J.F. Maxwell
Didymocarpus (Gesneriaceae) in Thailand [Page 185 - 225]
A taxonomic revision of Didymocarpus (Gesneriaceae) in Thailand has resulted in eighteen species. Three new species are described: Didymocarpus inflatus J.F.Maxwell & Nangngam, D. jaesonensis Nangngam & J.F.Maxwell, and D. payapensis Nangngam & J.F.Maxwell. A key to the Thai species, detailed descriptions, and notes on distribution, ecology, phenology, salient morphological traits, and illustrations are presented.

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I.M. Turner
A new species of Monoon (Annonaceae) from Brunei [Page 227 - 229]
Monoon bathrantherum I.M.Turner is newly described. It is only known from Brunei on the island of Borneo and is notable for bearing reproductive structures on branched inflorescences confined to the base of the trunk.

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Peter Wilkie, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, David Harris and Laura L. Forrest
The collection and storage of plant material for DNA extraction: The Teabag Method [Page 231 - 234]
Silica gel has become the most common instrument for preserving leaf material in the field for future DNA extraction. This has generally involved leaf material being placed in silica gel in zip-lock type bags. Although effective it often requires a large amount of silica gel and large number of plastic bags to be taken into the field, something which is problematic during long field trips to remote areas. It also has the disadvantage that if the silica gel becomes hydrated or the plant material damp, replacement of the silica gel is difficult and can result in contamination. An alternative method using empty teabags avoids the need to carry large amounts of silica gel and plastic bags into the field and reduces the difficulty of replacing hydrated silica gel during fieldwork and longer term institutional storage.

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K.M. Wong, M. Sugumaran and J.B. Sugau
Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae, V. The Fagraea complex in Borneo: New generic assignments and recombinations [Page 235 - 239]
A new classification of the Fagraea complex (Gentianaceae) based on recent molecular studies and taxonomic considerations now recognises the genera Cyrtophyllum, Fagraea in the strict sense, Limahlania, Picrophloeus, and Utania. The Bornean species of this complex are listed following the new perspective and the remaining necessary new combinations (seven, in Utania) are made.

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Y.S. Yeoh, C.K. Yeo, W.F. Ang and Y.W. Low
Marsdenia maingayi (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a rare rainforest woody climber rediscovered in Singapore [Page 241 - 249]
Marsdenia maingayi, a rare rainforest climber previously thought to be extinct in Singapore, was rediscovered in the vicinity of MacRitchie Reservoir, Central Catchment Nature Reserve in July 2012. This is the second sighting of the taxon in Singapore since it was first collected in Changi in 1885—more than 120 years later. Based on this recent discovery, additional observations on the taxon are provided here and the conservation status of this species is revised to Critically Endangered for Singapore. Marsdenia maingayi is lectotypified here.

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Year of Publication: 2013, Vol. 65 (1)

Date Published 30 June 2013
P.C. Boyce and S.Y. Wong 
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo XXII: The enigmatic Aridarum montanum refound [Page 1 - 5]
Aridarum montanum Ridl., a species known from a single herbarium specimen allegedly collected on Gunung (Mt) Santubong, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo in 1909, has been refound on exposed shales in Sri Aman Division, and Sarikei Division, Sarawak, and subsequently flowered in cultivation. Morphological differences of the new collection compared with the original description and figure are catalogued and commented upon. An amended and expanded species description is provided, and the plant is illustrated in habitat, and from flowering cultivated material. Speculations on the probable location origin of Brooks' type material are proffered.
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P.C. Boyce and S.Y. Wong
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo XXIII: Piptospatha colata and P. Deceptri, taxonomic novelties from Borneo [Page 7 - 17]
Piptospatha colata P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong and P. Deceptrix P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong are newly described, respectively from Kalimantan Barat and Kalimantan Utara, Indonesian Borneo. Recognition of these novelties takes to 13 the number of described, accepted species of Piptospatha. An updated key to the genus is provided and both species are illustrated, along with those species that are most similar.

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R. Gogoi and S. Borah
Musa markkui (Musaceae), a new species from Arunachal Pradesh, India [Page 19 - 26]
Musa markkui R.Gogoi & S.Borah, a new species of Musa of the section Rhodochlamy, is described and illustrated from Lohit valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India based on observed morphological characters in the field. A key to M. markkui and related taxa is provided.

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R. Gogoi and S. Borah
Two new species and a new record for Colocasia (Araceae: Colocasieae) from Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India [Page 27 - 37]
Two new species of Colocasia (Araceae: Colocasieae), C. Boyceana R.Gogoi & S.Borah and C. Dibangensis R.Gogoi & S.Borah are described and illustrated from Arunachal Pradesh, NE India. Colocasia lihengiae C.L.Long & K.M.Liu is reported as a new record for the Flora of India. All three species are illustrated from living plants. A key to the Colocasia of India is provided.

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R. Kishor and J. Leong-Skornickova
Zingiber kangleipakense (Zingiberaceae): A new species from Manipur, India [Page 39 - 46]
Zingiber kangleipakense Kishor & Skornick. (Zingiberaceae) from Manipur, India is newly described and illustrated. A comparison with the most closely related species, Z. longiligulatum and Z. roseum is provided.

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J.D. Mood, L.M. Prince, J.F. Veldkamp and S. Dey
The history and identity of Boesenbergia longiflora (Zingiberaceae) and descriptions of five related new taxa [Page 47 - 95]
The history of Boesenbergia longiflora (Wall.) Kuntze (Zingiberaceae) is reviewed, its identity is discussed and a lectotype designated. Five new, related taxa are described and illustrated: B. collinsii Mood & L.M.Prince, B. hamiltonii Mood, S.Dey & L.M.Prince, B. kerrii Mood, L.M.Prince & Triboun, B. kingii Mood & L.M.Prince, and B. maxwellii Mood, L.M.Prince & Triboun. A phylogenetic analysis of plastid trnK intron (including matKnuclear ITS DNA sequence data indicate these Boesenbergia species form a clade within Boesenbergia. Results of the molecular data analyses in concert with several diagnostic characters, support the recognition of the new taxa. Historical illustrations, colour plates, a field key to the species, a comparative table, a listing of the botanical history of B. longiflora, and a geographical distributional map are provided.

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M.F. Newman
Valid publication of Boesenbergia aurantiaca (Zingiberaceae) [Page 97 - 100]
The reason why Boesenbergia aurantiaca was invalidly published is given and the name is validated here.

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H.-J. Tillich and J. Leong-Skornickova
Aspidistra jiewhoei (Asparagaceae), a new species from north Vietnam [Page 101 - 105]
An unusual new species of Aspidistra Ker Gawl. (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae) from north Vietnam, A. Jiewhoei Tillich & Skornick. Is described and illustrated here

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Y.H. Tong, W.B. Xu, Y.F. Deng, K.M. Wong and N.H. Xia
Rubovietnamia sericantha (Rubiaceae: Gardenieae), a new combination and notes on the genus in China [Page 107 - 114]
Porterandia sericantha, originally published as Randia sericantha, is re-combined as Rubovietnamia sericantha. Because of its earlier published specific epithet,it is the correct name for the generic type, Rubovietnamia aristata. Rubovietnamia consists of two species distributed in SW China and N Vietnam.

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I.M. Turner
Additions to The Plant Taxa of H.N. Ridley, 4. The Primitive Angiosperms (Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Chloranthales, Laurales, Magnoliales, Nymphaeales and Piperales) [Page 115 - 116]
Three taxa omitted from an earlier compilation are listed here. They represent names authored by Henry Ridley for varieties in the Annonaceae. One name is lectotypified.

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J.F. Veldkamp
Nomenclatural notes on Eugenia reinwardtiana (Myrtaceae) and more or less associated names [Page 117 - 134]
The nomenclatures of Calyptranthes ramiflora Blanco, Caryophyllus cotinifolius Miller, Eugenia bukobensis Engler, E. codyensis Munro ex Wight, E. cotinifolia Jacq., E. elliptica Lam., E. hypoleuca Thwaites ex Kosterm., E. phillyreoides Trimen., E. reinwardtiana DC., E. roxburghii DC., E. salomonica C.T. White, Jossinia Comm. ex DC., Myrtus caryophyllata L., M. cotini folio Plumier, M. pimenta L., and Pimenta acris (Sw.) Kostel. (Myrtaceae), and more or less associated names are outlined. Some typifications are made.

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Year of Publication: 2012, Vol. 64 (2)

Date Published 12 December 2012
Peter C. Boyce, Zulhazman Hamzah and Sofiman Othman
Studies on Monstereae (Araceae) of Peninsular Malaysia IV: The enigmatic Rhaphidophora corneri refound after 75 years [Page 261 - 288]
Rhaphidophora corneri P.C.Boyce, a highly distinctive but hitherto poorly known species described from fragmentary material collected by E.J.H. Corner late in 1935 from Kemaman (Terengganu state in Peninsular Malaysia) has recently been refound in neighbouring Kelantan. A much-expanded species description is provided, along with new information pertaining to its ecology. A reinterpretation of possible relationships with other Rhaphidophora species is offered in light of these novel data. Photographs depicting newly observed vegetative morphology are provided.   

C. Pramod, A.K. Pradeep and J.F. Veldkamp
Coelachne madayensis (Poaceae: Pooideae: Isachneae), a new species from Kerala, India [Page 289 - 292]
A new species of Coelachne (Poaceae: Pooideae: Isachneae) from Madayippara in the Kannur District of Northern Kerala, India is described and illustrated. A key for the identification of the Indian congeners is provided.

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M. Rodda H.D. Tran, P.T. Chiew, D. Liew and J. Leong-Škorničková
The rediscovery of Dischidia hirsuta (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) in Singapore [Page 293 - 299]
This paper seeks to document the rediscovery of Dischidia hirsuta (Bl.) Decne. in Singapore. The taxon was last collected from Singapore in 1903 and later considered nationally extinct. Botanical investigation of Nee Soon Swamp Forest in May 2011 resulted in the rediscovery of a single specimen of D. hirsuta, now considered critically endangered.

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M. Sugumaran and K.M. Wong
Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae I: Fagraea sensu lato―complex genus or several genera? A molecular phylogenetic study [Page 301 - 332]
Phylogenetic studies of Fagraea s.l. based on maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of gene sequences for the nuclear ITS region and a number of chloroplast regions (trnL intron, trnL–F spacer and two partial sequence regions of ndhF) were carried out. Separate experiments with an ingroup of 29 taxa of Fagraea s.l. (8 from section Cyrtophyllum, 16 from section Fagraea and 5 from section Racemosae; all new sequences) were made with individual gene-region and combined data sets; and with 43 taxa using only an ITS data set that included published gene sequences of other recently revised, well-established genera of the same tribe (Potalieae). Reasonably consistent clade composition was obtained with all analyses: two clades could be equated to sections Fagraea and Racemosae, another two (Elliptica and Gigantea clades) are different portions of the section Cyrtophyllum, and the solitary F. crenulata resolved basal to the Fagraea clade in the chloroplast gene analyses but was a distinct lineage in a polytomy with the Fagraea, Racemosa and Gigantea clades in the ITS analyses. The equivalence of these clades and the F. crenulata lineage to other monophyletic groups represented by established genera in the expanded-ITS analysis, as well as considerations of potential morphological synapomorphies for these individual entities, suggest that Fagraea s.l. is too morphologically and phylogenetically divergent to be considered a single genus.
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Pramote Triboun and David J. Middleton
Twenty new species of Paraboea (Gesneriaceae) from Thailand [Page 333 - 370]
Twenty new species of Paraboea are described from Thailand: Paraboea arachnoidea Triboun, Paraboea axillaris Triboun, Paraboea bhumiboliana Triboun & Chuchan, Paraboea doitungensis Triboun & D.J. Middleton, Paraboea eburnea Triboun, Paraboea insularis Triboun, Paraboea lavandulodora Triboun, Paraboea monticola Triboun & D.J. Middleton, Paraboea nana Triboun & Dongkumfu, Paraboea nobilis Triboun & D.J. Middleton, Paraboea peninsularis Triboun & D.J. Middleton, Paraboea phanomensis Triboun & D.J. Middleton, Paraboea quercifolia Triboun, Paraboea rosea Triboun, Paraboea sangwaniae Triboun, Paraboea siamensis Triboun, Paraboea takensis Triboun, Paraboea tenuicalyx Triboun, Paraboea vachareea Triboun & Sonsupab and Paraboea xylocaulis Triboun. Full descriptions and conservation assessments are provided for all taxa.

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I.M. Turner
Annonaceae of Borneo: a review of the climbing species [Page 370 - 478]
The climbing species of the Annonaceae native to Borneo are reviewed. Eight genera of lianas are represented: Artabotrys (17 spp.), Desmos (4 spp.), Fissistigma (15 spp.), Friesodielsia (9 spp.), Mitrella (3 spp.), Pyramidanthe (1 sp.), Sphaerocoryne (1 sp.) and Uvaria (19 spp.). The species are described. Synonymy, typifications and keys for identification are included. No nomenclatural novelties are presented in this account.

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K.M. Wong and M. Sugumaran
Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae II: A taxonomic framework for the Fagraea complex, including the new genus Limahlania [Page 481 - 495]
A molecular phylogenetic study that provided good resolution of the Fagraea s.l. complex is the basis for constructing a new taxonomic framework in this group. The lineages identified showed good correspondence with other clades that represent well-established, recently revised genera in the tribe (Potalieae) and subtribe (Potaliinae) in terms of structure and statistical support (monophyly), and possessed recognisable morphological characteristics that were potentially synapomorphic for each monophyletic group. Generic identities are therefore adopted for the clades within this complex, as well as a somewhat isolated lineage, resulting in the definition of Fagraea Thunb. s.s.; the reapplication of Cyrtophyllum Reinw., Picrophloeus Blume, and Utania G.Don; and the circumscription of the new genus Limahlania K.M. Wong & M. Sugumaran. A key to the genera of the Fagraea complex is presented and nomenclatural notes are provided for each genus, in order to facilitate subsequent revisions. Limahlania crenulata (Maingay ex Clarke) K.M. Wong & M. Sugumaran and U. volubilis (Wall.) M.Sugumaran are new combinations. Lectotypes are selected for C. peregrinum Reinw., F. ceilanica Thunb., Kuhlia morindifolia Blume, and P. javanensis Blume.

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K.M. Wong and M. Sugumaran
Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae III: Cyrtophyllum reapplied to the Fagraea fragrans alliance [Page 497 - 510]
Cyrtophyllum Reinw., one of several distinct lineages among the Fagraea complex, is the correct genus to which five species of Southeast Asian trees should be assigned,
including the widespread F. fragrans. Cyrtophyllum minutiflorum K.M. Wong is a new species described here. Two new combinations are made: C. caudatum (Ridl.) K.M. Wong and C. wallichianum (Benth.) M. Sugumaran & K.M. Wong.

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K.M. Wong
Studies in Malesian Gentianaceae IV: A revision of Picrophloeus [Page 511 - 522]
Picrophloeus Blume is the correct generic assignment for four species forming one of several distinct lineages in the Fagraea complex. They include the widespread Southeast Asian P. javanensis Blume, otherwise commonly known by the dubious name F. elliptica Roxb. Three new combinations are made for species known only in Borneo: P. belukar (K.M.Wong & Sugau) K.M. Wong, P. collinus (K.M.Wong & Sugau) K.M. Wong, and P. rugulosus (K.M. Wong & Sugau) K.M. Wong.

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Zulhazman Hamzah, Peter C. Boyce and Mashhor Mansor
Studies on Homalomeneae (Araceae) of Peninsular Malaysia IV: Homalomena stongensis, a remarkable new species endemic to Gunung Stong, Kelantan [Page 523 - 527]
Homalomena stongensis is described from Gunung Stong, Kelantan, where it is very locally endemic to steep forested slopes. An updated key to Peninsular Malaysian species of Homalomena Supergroup Homalomena is provided, and the new species is illustrated.

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Year of Publication: 2012, Vol. 64 (1)

Date Published 15 July 2012
K.M. Wong
A hundred years of the Gardens’ Bulletin, Singapore [Page 1 - 32]
Historical developments are traced pertaining to the founding and transformation of the Agricultural Bulletin of the Malay Peninsula, 1891−1900, the Agricultural Bulletin of the Straits and Federated Malay States, 1901−1911, the first two periodicals of the Singapore Botanic Gardens, and the Agricultural Bulletin of the Straits and Federated Malay States, Third Series, which began in 1912. This third series soon continued as the Gardens’ Bulletin, Straits Settlements when in 1913 it was decided to continue the journal from the Botanic Gardens with a name change to avoid confusion with an Agricultural Bulletin separately begun for the Federated Malay States, as their new Department of Agriculture developed and economic activities around agriculture intensified. After World War II, this continued as the Gardens’ Bulletin, Singapore, which achieved its centenary in 2012. The early focus on the Hevea rubber crop and industry during the time of H.N. Ridley, its founding editor, and the re-orientation of the Gardens’ Bulletin into a journal with increased original content in the botanical (especially taxonomic) sciences from the period of I.H. Burkill, Ridley’s successor, are described. Historical events, especially the administrative divergence between the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States, the impact of World War II and post-war political development, the development of administrative organisation within the newly independent Singapore; and the integration of botanical science over the Malesian botanical region wherein the Malay Peninsula is located, have contributed to shaping the focus and scope of the Bulletin. The development phases of the Singapore Botanic Gardens―home of the Bulletin―as well as the pivotal roles of its leading botanists, are examined, through stages of scientific transformation from an essentially “Malayan” perspective largely maintained by a small botanical home team, to a more regionally relevant research programme, and finally an international outlook that continues to sustain its Southeast Asian emphasis.   

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Charles Clarke and Ch’ien C. Lee
A revision of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) from Gunung Tahan, Peninsular Malaysia [Page 33 - 49]
The Nepenthes from Gunung Tahan in Peninsular Malaysia are revised. We recognise four species from this mountain; N. alba, N. benstonei, N. gracillima and N. sanguinea. The reinstatement of N. alba is based on a consistent difference in upper pitcher colouration between it (typically evenly pale yellowish to ivory white) and N. gracillima (dark green with purple-brown speckles). Material from Gunung Tahan that was identified in previous treatments as N. macfarlanei belongs to N. gracillima and the former species is absent from Gunung Tahan. Nepenthes alba and N. gracillima are very similar to N. macfarlanei and further examinations of the relationships among these taxa are warranted.

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Helena Duistermaat
A taxonomic revision of Amischotolype (Commelinaceae) in Asia [Page 51 - 131]
A taxonomic revision of the Indomalayan part of the paleotropical genus Amischotolype Hassk. (Commelinaceae) reveals 22 species in Asia, of which eight are described as new (A. barbarossa Duist., A. divaricata Duist., A. dolichandra Duist., A. lobata Duist., A. parvifructa Duist., A. pedicellata Duist., A. strigosa Duist., A. welzeniana Duist.), and three are new combinations (A. hirsuta (Hallier f.) Duist., A. leiocarpa (Hallier f.) Duist., A. rostrata (Hassk.) Duist.). The status of the closely related genus Porandra Hong is discussed although results of a molecular study are required to make a final decision on its generic status. For now the genera are kept separate, but the species of Porandra are included in the key to the species of Amischotolype.

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H. Kurzweil and S. Lwin
First record of Taeniophyllum (Orchidaceae) in Myanmar [Page 133 - 137]
Taeniophyllum Blume was recently discovered in northern Myanmar, a new generic record for the country. The Myanmar specimens are referred to the widespread species T. glandulosum Blume, characterised by terete roots, warty inflorescence axes, distichous bracts, sepals and petals basally fused into a tube about as long as their ovate-lanceolate free parts, and an ovate-lanceolate lip with a globose spur.

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C.Y. Ling and S. Julia
Diversity of the tree flora in Semenggoh Arboretum, Sarawak, Borneo [Page 139- 169]
A 4-ha sample plot was established at the Arboretum, Semenggoh Forest Reserve to document tree species in this lowland mixed dipterocarp forest. The area assessed contains 2837 trees with diameter at breast height ≥ 10 cm belonging to 60 families, 160 genera and 541 species. Euphorbiaceae and Malvaceae (10 genera each) were the most diverse families at genus level and Dipterocarpaceae (61 species) is most diverse at species level. More than 25% of trees (720 individuals) were dipterocarps and contributed the highest basal area (cross-sectional area over-bark at breast height measured in m2) of 16.7 m2/ha. The most abundant species are Shorea multiflora (21 trees/ha) and Pouteria malaccensis (31 trees/ha) for dipterocarp and non-dipterocarp species, respectively. Semenggoh Arboretum has a rich and diverse flora and, being a natural primary forest in the middle of an increasingly developed area, Semenggoh is important as a genetic reservoir for threatened species (particularly the dipterocarps) and as an in-situ conservation site for Sarawak’s lowland mixed dipterocarp forest.

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R.R. Mill and M. Whiting
Podocarpus orarius (Podocarpaceae), a new species from the Solomon Islands and a taxonomic clarification of Podocarpus spathoides from Malaysia [Page 171 - 193]
Podocarpus spathoides de Laub. (Podocarpaceae) is revised and is restricted to material from Malaysia where the type was collected. An emended description is given because the protologue was based on a mixture of different taxa. Plants from the Solomon Islands, previously described as Podocarpus spathoides var. solomonensis Silba, are here raised to species rank as the new species Podocarpus orarius R.R.Mill & M.Whiting. This is currently believed to be endemic to the Solomon Islands where it has been wild-collected on Choiseul, San Jorge and Guadalcanal; cultivated material, apparently originating from the wild, has also been seen from the island of New Georgia. Similar plants occur on neighbouring islands of Vanuatu but require proper evaluation before they can be assigned to the new species. Illustrations of the habit and reproductive characters of Podocarpus orarius are provided. Material from Morotai in the Moluccas that has in the past been assigned to Podocarpus spathoides is also morphologically distinct from the type but is insufficient for formal naming. The leaf cuticle micromorphology of Podocarpus spathoides and P. orarius is described and illustrated.

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Q.B. Nguyen and Jana Leong-Škorničková
Distichochlamys benenica (Zingiberaceae), a new species from Vietnam [Page 195 - 200]
Distichochlamys benenica (Zingiberaceae) from north Vietnam is described. Colour plates are provided and the key to Distichochlamys species is updated.

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Hans-Juergen Tillich and Leonid V. Averyanov
Four new species of Aspidistra Ker-Gawl. (Asparagaceae) from China and Vietnam with a comment on A. longifolia Hook.f. and A. hainanensis W.Y.Chun & F.C.How [Page 201 - 209]
Four new species of Aspidistra Ker Gawl. (Asparagaceae) are described and illustrated: A. basalis Tillich, A. columellaris Tillich, A. gracilis Tillich from China, and A. coccigera L.V.Averyanov & Tillich from Vietnam. The application of the name A. longifolia Hook.f. to plants from SE Asia and the intraspecific variability of A. hainanensis W.Y.Chun & F.C.How across its range from peninsular Malaysia to SE China is also discussed.

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A.P.J. Ting, S.Y. Wong, J.Jamliah and P.C. Boyce
Phylogenetic study of the Schismatoglottis Nervosa Complex (Araceae: Schismatoglottideae) [Page 211 - 219]
The Schismatoglottis Nervosa Complex (Araceae: Schismatoglottideae) currently comprises 10 species: Schismatoglottis adoceta S.Y. Wong, S. elegans A.Hay, S. liniae S.Y. Wong, S. tessellata S.Y. Wong, S. ulusarikeiensis S.Y. Wong, S. matangensis S.Y. Wong, S. simonii S.Y. Wong, S. turbata S.Y. Wong, and S. nervosa Ridl., occurring in Borneo, with each endemic to a specific locality and most to a particular geology; and one species (S. brevicuspis Hook.f.) widespread in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, where it is restricted to granites. Based on analysis of the matK region, a preliminary biogeographical hypothesis for the origins and subsequent taxagenesis of the Nervosa Complex is presented. This study also provides insight into possible evolution of localised mesophytic endemics in everwet, humid, and perhumid megathermal Sundaic forests. Two clades are resolved: one north of, and another south of, the Lupar Divide.

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I.M. Turner
The plant taxa of H.N. Ridley, 4. The primitive angiosperms (Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Chloranthales, Laurales, Magnoliales, Nymphaeales and Piperales) [Page 221 - 256]
The  names of plant taxa authored by H.N. Ridley from the orders of primitive angiosperms are enumerated. A total of 157 taxa across 11 families (Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Chloranthaceae, Illiciaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae, Monimiaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Piperaceae, Trimeniaceae and Winteraceae) and seven orders (Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Chloranthales, Laurales, Magnoliales, Nymphaeales and Piperales) are listed with synonyms and accepted names. The types are listed for those taxa that Ridley described. Lectotypes are designated for 37 taxa. Melodorum breviflorum Ridl. (Annonaceae) is transferred to Fissistigma, and two Ridley species in Piperaceae that are later homonyms are provided with new names: Peperomia kerinciensis I.M.Turner for Peperomia villosa Ridl. (1917, nom. illegit. non P. villosa C.DC. (1866)) and Piper angsiense I.M.Turner for Piper venosum Ridl. (1925, nom. illegit. non P. venosum (Miq.) C.DC. (1869)).

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S.Y. Wong, P.C. Boyce and S.L. Low
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo XVII: The Schismatoglottis Hottae Complex, a new informal taxon, and three new species from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo [Page 257 - 269]
On the basis of a suite of shared morphological characters, the Schismatoglottis Hottae Complex is defined as a Borneo-endemic informal taxon in the Schismatoglottis Asperata Group. Four species, three novel, are assigned to the Hottae Complex: S. hottae Bogner & Nicolson, S. dilecta S.Y. Wong, P.C.Boyce & S.L. Low, sp. nov., S. mira S.Y. Wong, P.C. Boyce & S.L. Low, sp. nov., and S. thelephora S.Y. Wong, P.C. Boyce & S.L. Low, sp. nov. A key to species of the Hottae Complex is proffered. Schismatoglottis hottae is illustrated from the Holotype herbarium material, the three novelties from living plants.

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Year of Publication: 2011, Vol. 63 (1&2)

Date Published 22 December 2011
J.F. Veldkamp
Georgius Everhardus Rumphius (1627–1702), the blind seer of Ambon [Page 1 - 15]
Georg Eberhard Rumpf, better known as Rumphius (1627–1702) was a Homo universalis and is the undisputed patriarch of Malesian botany, zoology, geology (including fossils!), colonial history; pharmaceutical, architectural, juridical (local and Western), ethnological, linguistic, historical, and religious matters, including astrology and magic. To botanists he is best known for his Herbarium amboinense (1741–1750), the first account and sometimes the only one of Malesian plants. This is a 7-volume folio work with extensive descriptions and discussions in Latin and Dutch of about 1200 species with 811 full-page illustrations. A brief account of his life and works is given.

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H. Rustiami, J.P. Mogea and S.S. Tjitrosoedirdjo
Revision of the rattan genus Daemonorops (Palmae: Calamoideae) in Sulawesi using a phenetic analysis approach [Page 17 - 30]
A phenetic analysis based on 27 morphometric characters of seven species of Daemonorops in Sulawesi recovered two groups with a similarity coefficient value of 0.51. Group A consists of D. takanensis and D. lamprolepis with a similarity coefficient value of 0.58. Group B is divided into subgroup B1 and subgroup B2, with a similarity coefficient value of 0.59. Group B1 consists of D. macroptera, D. mogeana and D. robusta. Group B2 consists of D. riedeliana and D. sarasinorum. An identification key to species and their descriptions are presented.

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Ary Prihardhyanto Keim, Rugayah and Himmah Rustiami
The Pandanaceae of the Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park and adjacent areas, West and Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, with notes on their nomenclature and the rediscovery of Pandanus aristatus and several new records [Page 31 - 62]
Eight species of Pandanaceae (3 Freycinetia spp., 5 Pandanus spp.) were recorded from the Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park and adjacent areas in the West and Central Kalimantan Provinces, Indonesia. Pandanus aristatus was recollected and the description improved. Pandanus motleyanus has been assigned to synonymy under P. yvanii. Pandanus yvanii and P. helicopus were found to occupy different niches in the peat swamps. Pandanus epiphyticus Martelli and P. pachyphyllus Merrill were recorded for the first time in Kalimantan. The doubtful presence of F. sumatrana in Java is resolved. Two Eastern Malesian species, F. amboinensis and F. ceramensis are synonyms of F. sumatrana, thus the species is now an exceptionally widespread species in both western and eastern Malesia. Full descriptions of species are provided.

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Sri Endarti Rahayu, Alex Hartana, Tatik Chikmawati and Kuswata Kartawinata
A taxonomic study of the Pandanus furcatus and P. tectorius complexes (Pandanaceae) in Java [Page 63 - 70]
Current taxonomic problems in Pandanus in Java include the interpretation of the Pandanus furcatus complex as well as the P. tectorius complex. A study of general morphological, stomatal and molecular characteristics (viz., the noncoding chloroplast intergenic spacer region atpB-rbcL) showed that P. bantamensis Koord., P. pseudolais Warb., and P. scabrifolius Martelli, previously considered synonyms of P. furcatus, and P. tectorius var. littoralis Martelli and P. odoratissimus L.f. are all distinct species.

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A.Sumadijaya and J.F.Veldkamp
Bothriochloa (Poaceae: Andropogoneae) in Malesia [Page 71 - 76]
In Malesia there are four species of Bothriochloa (Poaceae: Andropogoneae). Andropogon modesta is lectotypified.

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Marie Briggs
Saurauia (Actinidiaceae) of New Guinea: current status, future plans [Page 77 - 82]
Saurauia, with approximately 300 species, is the largest of three genera within the family Actinidiaceae and is found in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia, Central and South America. The family placement of the genus has changed several times, at times being placed in Ternstroemiaceae, Dilleniaceae and its own family, Saurauiaceae. The island of New Guinea may be a centre of diversity for Saurauia in South East Asia with more than 50 species. No comprehensive treatment of New Guinean Saurauia has been attempted since the work of Diels in 1922, despite complaints by later researchers that this publication is out of date and the subdivisions of the genus proposed therein are unsatisfactory. A full account of the family, including Saurauia, has yet to be covered in Flora Malesiana. This paper presents an introduction to the genus Saurauia in New Guinea and communicates plans for future research.

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Mark Hughes and Deden Girmansyah
Searching for Sumatran Begonia described by William Jack: following in the footsteps of a 19th century Scottish botanist [Page 83 - 96]
Eight species of Begonia were described from Sumatra in 1822 by the Scottish botanist William Jack. All of the type material associated with these names was destroyed in a fire in 1824, and an expedition was mounted in August 2010 to re-visit Jack’s collecting localities in an effort to find material suitable for neotypification. Of the eight species, two (Begonia bracteata Jack and B. racemosa Jack) could be neotypified with certainty, whilst others require further work. It is possible that some of the species described from Bengkulu province may have become extinct due to loss of forest habitat.

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S. Syahida-Emiza, G. Staples and N.W. Haron
Materials for a revision of Erycibe (Convolvulaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 97 - 103]
Information from the literature, new observations based on field study, and new distribution data gathered from herbarium specimens and new collections are assembled in preparation for a revision of the genus Erycibe in Peninsular Malaysia. Significant new data are discussed and a conservation status is assigned to each of the 19 taxa recognised in Peninsular Malaysia. Problems still to be resolved are highlighted.

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T.M.A. Utteridge and M. Schori
Updating Malesian Icacinaceae [Page 105 - 118]
The Icacinaceae were traditionally considered difficult to recognise because of extremely diverse vegetative anatomy and an enormous range in structure. Using a traditional circumscription of the family, the Icacinaceae of Asia were revised by Sleumer in 1969 and published in the Flora Malesiana in 1971, and included 100 species in 21 genera. Since the publication of the FM account, a new understanding of relationships within the group, stimulated by molecular phylogenetic data, has resulted in these genera being assigned to several different, more morphologically homogeneous families. In addition, an increase in collections has allowed species-level taxonomy to be revised in several groups, resulting in new species from the region, as well as a new genus from Borneo. In this paper these changes are reviewed, with a discussion of useful characters for identification, and an updated list of families, genera and species presented.

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J.A. Wearn and D.J. Mabberley
Clerodendrum confusion―redefinition of, and new perspectives for, a large Labiate genus [Page 119 - 124]
Formerly referred to Verbenaceae s.l., Clerodendrum L. is one of the largest genera within the Lamiaceae (Labiatae) s.l., and many of its species are of ecological and commercial importance. However, confusion about species delimitation and identification has reigned for many decades, resulting in large quantities of unidentified, or misidentified, herbarium material. Results from recent molecular studies have provided a framework for accurate placement of taxa. The revised concept of the genus is applied to taxa in Malesia in order to produce a modern account for Flora Malesiana, which includes up-to-date descriptions and much-needed keys. Progress made so far is reported.

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I.Nadiah and E. Soepadmo
A synopsis of Coelostegia (Bombacaceae/Malvaceae: Helicteroideae: Durioneae) and new records from Borneo [Page 125 - 135]
A synoptic revision of Coelostegia Benth. (Bombacaceae/Malvaceae subfam. Helicteroideae–Durioneae) in Borneo is given. Six species are recognised, of which four (C. chartacea, C. kostermansii, C. montana and C. neesiocarpa) are endemic to Borneo. Coelostegia griffithii, previously recorded only from Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Java and Sumatra, is now also found in Borneo, while C. montana previously known only from Sarawak and Kalimantan also occurs in Sabah. Gross morphological and micromorphological characters show that the genus Coelostegia can be readily distinguished from other genera in the Durioneae-group by the epicalyx being much shorter than the calyx, the induplicatesaccate calyx character and the ovary being partly enclosed by the receptacle. The distinction is also supported by micromorphological characters derived from trichomes, stomata, and pollen. Nomenclatural (typification and synonymy) and taxonomic notes, ecology and geographical distribution of the recognised species are provided.

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H.S. Tan, R.C.K. Chung and E. Soepadmo
A synopsis of Jarandersonia (Malvaceae: Brownlowioideae) [Page 137 - 144]
A revision of Jarandersonia was conducted as part of a study of Malvaceae: Brownlowioideae for the Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak Project. Six species of Jarandersonia are recognised for Borneo, of which J. pentaceoides R.C.K.Chung & H.S.Tan, endemic to central Kalimantan, is new to science. A complete list of exsiccatae, nomenclatural and taxonomic notes, geographical distribution and conservation status of the recognised species, are provided.

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Peter Wilkie
Towards an account of Sapotaceae for Flora Malesiana [Page 145 - 153]
An overview of the pan-tropical family Sapotaceae is provided with particular focus on the Malesian region. Past and current taxonomic and phylogenetic research is summarised and publications relating to the production of a Flora Malesiana Sapotaceae account highlighted. Challenges to delivering a Flora Malesiana account are identified and some potential solutions suggested.

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Barry J. Conn and Julisasi T. Hadiah
Precursor to flora account of Procris (Urticaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 155 - 162]
A review of Elatostema J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. and Procris Juss. (Urticaceae) occurring in Peninsular Malaysia resulted in four taxa, currently classified in Elatostema, being transferred to the genus Procris. Six species of Procris are recognised as occurring in Peninsular Malaysia with the following new combinations provided here: Procris acaulis (Hook.f.) B.J. Conn & J.T. Hadiah; Procris curtisii (Ridl.) B.J. Conn & J.T. Hadiah; and Procris repens (Lour.) B.J. Conn & J.T. Hadiah. A modified description of Procris (including Pellionia) and a key to the species occurring in Peninsular Malaysia are provided.

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G.E. Lee, S. Robbert Gradstein, A. Damanhuri and A. Latiff
Towards a revision of Lejeunea (Lejeuneaceae) in Malaysia [Page 163 - 173]
As currently delimited, Lejeunea Lib. is characterised by the hyaline papilla at the proximal side of the first tooth of the lobule; the usual absence of ocelli in the leaf lobe; lobules occasionally reduced and with a single tooth; small, finely granular or homogeneous oil bodies; underleaves without or with straight, upright lobes; thin-walled epidermal cells that are larger than the medullary cells; branches of the Lejeunea-type; and gynoecia with lejeuneoid innovations. In Malaysia, 29 species of Lejeunea have hither to been recognised. In the framework of an ongoing taxonomic revision, all characters used to circumscribe the genus and the species from Malaysia have been critically assessed based on study of fresh material collected during many field excursions throughout Malaysia (the Peninsular, Sabah, Sarawak) as well as study of herbarium material. Some characters which were neglected previously, such as the morphology of the first lobule tooth, superior central cells and female bracts and bracteoles, are being critically evaluated. These characters may be useful for differentiating Lejeunea from closely related genera, whereas characters of oil bodies, the perianth, the lobule with a large disc cell, and underleaves with two large basal cells, are also useful for distinguishing some species within the genus.

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Vincent Demoulin
The study of larger basidiomycetes, especially polypores, in the Malesian region and the role of the Singapore Botanic Gardens [Page 175 - 188]
The development of the study of larger basidiomycetes, especially polypores, in the Malesian region is presented. The historical importance of the botanical gardens in Bogor and Singapore is emphasised and an overview of the mycological collection in Singapore is given. This includes several isotypes of taxa described by G.E. Massee, C.G. Lloyd and N. Patouillard, as well as paratypes and holotypes of taxa described by E.J.H. Corner. The problems linked to Corner’s material are discussed in the light of studies made in both Singapore and Edinburgh. The polypore collection in Singapore is a valuable resource for studying any geographical variation of fungal floras in the Malesian region and a unique tool for examining any temporal change in this flora, given the continuity of collections in the island since H.N. Ridley in 1892.

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M.C. Roos, W.G. Berendsohn, S. Dessein, T. Hamann, N. Hoffmann, P. Hovenkamp, T. Janssen, D. Kirkup, R. de Kok, S.E.C. Sierra, E. Smets, C. Webb and P.C. van Welzen
e-Flora Malesiana: state of the art and perspectives [Page 189 - 195]
An overview is presented of available e-taxonomic products and ongoing projects contributing to Flora Malesiana. This is presented in the context of a strong plea to strengthen the implementation of state-of-the-art e-taxonomy tools to speed up the generation and publication of Flora Malesiana information.

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K.Y. Chong, Hugh T.W. Tan and Richard T. Corlett
A summary of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore [Page 197 - 204]
The last analysis of the vascular plant flora of Singapore was published more than a decade ago. Since then, the conservation statuses of all native species have been assessed and more exotic species have been recognised as naturalised. We present a holistic view of the family compositions and life forms of the total flora, including many exotic species that are found in cultivation only and not yet escaped or naturalised. Excluding extinct species, exotic species now outnumber native species. Horticultural introductions have also strongly influenced family compositions: legumes and palms are now the most species-rich families in the total flora. Legumes are also a dominant family among all naturalised life forms. We briefly discuss these implications for local conservation ecology.

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A.T.K. Yee, Richard T. Corlett, S.C. Liew and Hugh T.W. Tan
The vegetation of Singapore―an updated map [Page 205 - 212]
The primeval vegetation of Singapore was largely lowland dipterocarp forest, with mangrove forest lining much of the coast and freshwater swamp forest found further inland adjacent to the streams and rivers. After colonization by the British in 1819, almost all the primeval vegetation was cleared for agriculture and other land uses. The most comprehensive vegetation map of Singapore was made in the 1970s and has not been updated since. Here we present an updated vegetation map of Singapore using information from satellite images, published works, and extensive ground-truthing. Vegetation covers 56% of Singapore’s total land area: 27% is actively managed (parks, gardens, lawns, etc.) and 29% is spontaneous vegetation. Primary lowland dipterocarp forest and freshwater swamp forest cover only 0.28% and is confined to the Bukit Timah and Central Catchment Nature Reserves. The majority of the non-managed vegetation is secondary forest of various kinds, dominated by native or alien trees. The managed vegetation and alien-dominated secondary vegetation are understudied and deserve more research attention. The vegetation of Singapore should be re-mapped at regular intervals in order to better understand the changes.

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Zulhazman Hamzah, Mashhor Mansor and P.C. Boyce
Notes on Araceae of Kuala Koh, Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia [Page 213 - 218]
A total of 32 species from 11 genera of aroids were collected from Kuala Koh, Gua Musang, Kelantan. This represents about 23% out of an estimated 140 species and 39% of the 28 genera of aroids reported for Peninsular Malaysia. These include 24 species that are new records for Kelantan, including the recently described Homalomena kualakohensis Zulhazman, Mashhor & P.C.Boyce, and the very rare Rhaphidophora corneri P.C.Boyce, refound after 75 years.

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Victor B. Amoroso, Socorro H.Laraga and Bridget V. Calzada
Diversity and assessment of plants in Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park, Bukidnon, Southern Philippines [Page 219 - 236]
This research describes the vegetation types, determines the diversity and assesses the conservation status of vascular plants in Mt. Kitanglad Range Natural Park, Bukidnon Province. Twelve 20 m × 20 m nested plots were established per vegetation type. A transect survey with 34 plots revealed three vegetation types, namely the agroecosystem, lower montane forest and mossy forest, with 661 species, 264 genera, and 106 families enumerated. Plant species richness and diversity decreases as the altitude increases, and the mossy forest had the lowest species diversity. Lithocarpus sp. obtained the highest Species Importance Value (SIV) for trees in both lower montane and mossy forests together, while Leptospermum sp. had the highest SIV in the mossy forest. Tree profile analysis showed that the lower montane forest had the highest mean number of species (7.9 spp.) and individuals (26.9 individuals), mean height (11.12 m) and mean diameter at breast height (dbh, 39.40 cm). The upper mossy forest had the lowest mean number of species (4.4 spp.), individuals (20.2 individuals), average height (7.03 m) and average dbh (16.60 cm). We assess 92 threatened and 82 rare species; 108 endemic species, 50 economically important species, 56 species newly recorded in the locality and 20 species newly recorded for the Philippines. Policy recommendations are given for protecting the remaining threatened, endemic and rare species of plants and their habitats.

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S.L. Low, S.Y. Wong, J. Jamliah and P.C. Boyce
Phylogenetic study of the Hottarum Group (Araceae: Schismatoglottideae) utilising the nuclear ITS region [Page 237 - 243]
Recent phylogenetic analyses of the tribe Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) elucidated a well-supported but internally unresolved crown group comprising Schismatoglottis sarikeensis (Bogner & M.Hotta) A.Hay & Bogner, previously placed in the genus Hottarum Bogner & Nicolson, the genus Phymatarum M.Hotta, and a number of species either novel or hitherto placed in Schismatoglottis Zoll. & Moritzi. The clade is particularly interesting in that it is centred in northern central Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo), north of the Lupar Divide and appears to represent an autochthonous radiation point for evolutionary activity isolated from the major tribal radiations in south-western Sarawak. Former Hottarum species (with the exclusion of H. truncatum) transferred to Piptospatha and Schismatoglottis are misplaced. All except Bakoa lucens (Bogner) P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong belong to this supra-Lupar Divide grouping. This study was undertaken to test the validity and phylogeny of the genus Hottarum utilising the nuclear ITS region.

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André Schuiteman
Dendrobium (Orchidaceae): To split or not to split? [Page 245 - 257]
Dendrobium Sw. is one of the three largest orchid genera, with around 1580 species if certain currently accepted satellite genera are included. Until recently, no serious attempts have been made to split up this important genus into smaller genera. An infrageneric classification at the sectional level, largely due to Schlechter, has been accepted by most workers. Recent analyses based on DNA markers by Yukawa, Clements, and others have provided new insights into the phylogeny of Dendrobium. Their work shows that Dendrobium is not monophyletic when the satellite genera are excluded. This led to proposals to split up Dendrobium into as many as fifty genera, largely along the lines of Schlechter’s sections. However, the data do not suggest any single, evident way to do the splitting. Here it is argued that a broad concept of the genus Dendrobium, which includes genera like Cadetia Gaudich., Flickingeria A.D.Hawkes and Epigeneium Gagnep., among others, is to be preferred. The comparable cases of other large orchid genera are briefly discussed and some observations are made on character evolution in Dendrobium and the origin of the genus in light of DNA-based phylogenies.

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Birgit Oelschlägel, Sarah Wagner, Karsten Salomo, Nediyaparambu Sukumaran Pradeep, Tze Leong Yao, Sandrine Isnard, Nick Rowe, Christoph Neinhuis and Stefan Wanke
Implications from molecular phylogenetic data for systematics, biogeography and growth form evolution of Thottea (Aristolochiaceae) [Page 259 - 275]
The genus Thottea comprises about 35 species distributed from India throughout Southeast Asia. However, most of the species have a narrow distribution. A first molecular phylogeny based on the chloroplast trnK intron, matK gene and trnK-psbA spacer is presented and confirms the monophyly of the genus according to Hou in 1981. Earlier subdivisions into the sections or genera Apama and Thottea could not be substantiated since both proved to be paraphyletic with respect to each other. The taxonomic and systematic history of Thottea is discussed with respect to molecular and morphological data. Thottea piperiformis is sister to all other species, which gives limited recognition to Asiphonia piperiformis as proposed by Huber (1985). Thottea tomentosa, one of the smallest and most widespread species is subsequently sister to all remaining species. Thottea diversified in two biogeographic regions: the Western Ghats in India and the Indo-Malayan region. A high degree of endemism is observed resulting from the presence of very few species shared between islands, which might be the result of a single colonisation and subsequent radiation. Within Piperales, Thottea holds a key position between the herbaceous Asaroideae and the woody Aristolochioideae.

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S. Rajbhandary, M. Hughes, T. Phutthai, D.C. Thomas and Krishna K. Shrestha
Asian Begonia: out of Africa via the Himalayas? [Page 277 - 286]
The large genus Begonia began to diverge in Africa during the Oligocene. The current hotspot of diversity for the genus in China and Southeast Asia must therefore be the result of an eastward dispersal or migration across the Asian continent. To investigate the role of the Himalayas as a mesic corridor facilitating this migration, we constructed a timecalibrated molecular phylogeny using ITS sequence data. Himalayan species of Begonia were found to fall into two groups. The first is an unresolved grade of tuberous, deciduous species of unknown geographic origin, with evidence of endemic radiations in the Himalayan region beginning c. 7.4 Ma, coinciding with the onset of the Asian monsoon. The second is a group of evergreen rhizomatous species with a probable origin in China, which immigrated to the Himalayan region c. 5.1 Ma, coinciding with an intensification of the monsoon. The hypothesis of the Himalayas being a mesic migration route during the colonisation of Asia is not refuted, but further data is needed.

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Gemma L.C. Bramley
Distribution patterns in Malesian Callicarpa (Lamiaceae) [Page 287 - 298]
A revision of the 55 species of Callicarpa L. (Lamiaceae) in Malesia is almost complete. There appear to be two major centres of diversity, in terms of species numbers: Borneo has 23 (44%) of the species (Bramley 2009), with 19 (83%) endemic; the Philippines has 26 (50%) of the species of which 16 (61%) are endemic (Bramley, in press, a). Callicarpa species have an extensive variation in distribution patterns; this paper focuses on the Pan-Malesian species, and the species of Borneo and the Philippines, the two islands / island groups that are the centre of Callicarpa species diversity. Fifteen of the 19 Callicarpa species endemic to Borneo belong to the ‘Geunsia’ group, an informal group used here to recognise Callicarpa pentandra and its relatives. The Geunsia group appears to be restricted to Malesia, and is only represented by C. pentandra outside of Borneo, the Philippines and Sulawesi. The 16 Callicarpa species endemic to the islands of the Philippines represent a number of different informal morphology-based groups containing species from other areas of Malesia, China or Indo-China, or, they do not appear to belong to any particular group.

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Hans P. Nooteboom
How did Magnolias (Magnoliaceae: Magnolioideae) reach Tropical Asia? [Page 299 - 306]
Extant magnolias (Magnoliaceae, Magnolioideae) have a classic disjunct distribution in southeast Asia and in the Americas between Canada and Brazil. Molecular analyses reveal that several North American species are basal forms suggesting that magnolias originated in North America, as indicated by their fossil record. We recognise four elements in their evolution: (1) Ancestral magnolias originated in the Late Cretaceous of North America in high mid-latitudes (45°–60°N) at low altitudes in a greenhouse climate. (2) During the exceptionally warm climate of the Eocene, magnolias spread eastwards, via the Disko Island and Thulean isthmuses, first to Europe, and then across Asia, still at low altitudes and high mid-latitudes. (3) With mid-Cenozoic global cooling, they shifted to lower mid-latitudes (30°–45°N), becoming extinct in Europe (Yulania was still present less than 2 mya.) and southern Siberia, dividing a once continuous distribution into two, centered in eastern Asia and in North America. (4) In the late Cenozoic, as ice-house conditions developed, magnolias migrated southward from both centres into moist warm temperate upland sites in the newly uplifted mountain ranges of South and Central America, southeast Asia, and the High Archipelago, where they diversified. Thus the late Cenozoic evolution of magnolias is characterised by impoverishment of northern, and diversification of southern species, the latter being driven by a combination of high relief and climate oscillations, and neither of the present centres of diversity is the centre of origin. Magnolioideae appear to consist of only the genus Magnolia.

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Pingting Chen, Jun Wen and Longqing Chen
Spatial and temporal diversification of Tetrastigma (Vitaceae) [Page 307 - 327]
The spatial and temporal diversification of Tetrastigma Planch., a genus of the grape family Vitaceae with a wide distribution throughout subtropical and tropical Asia to Australia, was examined through phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses. The times of divergence within Tetrastigma were estimated with the Bayesian approach based on sequence data from four plastid (atpB-rbcL, rps16, trnL-F, and psbA-trnH) markers using the computer program BEAST. The divergence time between Tetrastigma and its closely relative Cayratia was estimated as the early Eocene around 50.6 million years ago (mya), with 95% HPD: 36.3–65.3 mya. The age of the crown group of Tetrastigma was dated to be late Eocene (36.9 mya, with 95% HPD: 25.7–49.3 mya). Biogeographic analyses using LAGRANGE suggested that the Sino–Himalayan region (and the adjacent Indochina) was the most likely ancestral area for Tetrastigma. Most Tetrastigma species sampled from the Malesian region were nested within clades of the Sino–Himalayan and Indochina region. A few Malesian species primarily from SE Sulawesi, the Philippines and New Guinea are not associated with the Sino–Himalayan and Indochina species and formed separated clades. The results suggest that Tetrastigma species in the Malesian region have complex biogeographic origins and continental Asia served as an important source area for the Malesian members of the genus.

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Peter C. van Welzen and Niels Raes
The floristic position of Java [Page 329 - 339]
Floristically, Java was always considered to be west of Wallace’s line together with the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and Sulawesi. Recently, statistical analyses of rough geographic data per species (presence or absence on islands or island groups) showed that Java is part of the central Wallacean area in Malesia (together with also the Philippines, Sulawesi, the Lesser Sunda Islands, and the Moluccas) rather than of Sundaland (restricted to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo). More precise distribution maps for Java with collecting localities show that most species are widespread over Java or show a (more) western distribution; few species show an eastern distribution. The distributions show strong correlations with altitude (mountain species) and with precipitation (roughly wet in the west, dry in the east). The expectation was to find mainly species with a drought preference (Wallacean). However, most species show a preference for a wet distribution, which is related
to a Sunda distribution. The fact that the statistical tests used for the first database show a Wallacean connection for Java probably is the result of the relative values these test use instead of absolute numbers, e.g., the resemblance between, especially, the flora of the Lesser Sunda Islands with Java is very high.

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Mohammed Kamrul Huda and Christopher C. Wilcock
Colonisation and diversity of epiphytic orchids on trees in disturbed and undisturbed forests in the Asian tropics [Page 341 - 356]
Orchids are the most diverse group of epiphytes with more than two thirds of all their species being epiphytic, yet they are comparatively little studied. Colonisation, diversity and distribution of epiphytic orchids and their phorophytes (supporting trees) at 72 sites in disturbed and undisturbed natural forests of south-eastern Bangladesh were studied within a 21,070 km2 area. No evidence of phorophyte specificity was found, but some phorophyte species were preferred. Most phorophytes (76%) bore only a single species of orchid in one clump. Both orchid and phorophyte species were diverse but 30% of epiphytic orchid species were restricted to a single tree. Larger trees and trees in richer orchid areas accumulated more orchids. Colonisation by an epiphytic orchid is a rare and random event, the presence of one orchid neither attracting nor repelling others on the same phorophyte. The data suggest that the frequency of colonisation by epiphytic orchids is primarily a function of the age of the phorophyte (with greater age allowing both more time and more surfaces to accumulate seeds on them) and the existing orchid richness of an area (allowing for a higher colonisation rate from local seed input). Selective logging of the oldest trees in an area would therefore cause a decline in epiphytic orchid abundance and further loss in orchid richness of the area.

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Didik Widyatmoko
Habitat and ecological preferences of Hydriastele costata (Palmae) in Waigeo Island, West Papua [Page 357 - 374]
The research was conducted to test hypotheses about the significance and influence of edaphic parameters and association patterns in governing the occurrence and abundance of the karst palm Hydriastele costata and its co-occurrence with other plant species in Waigeo Island, West Papua. The results indicate that a number of interrelating edaphic factors influence the palm’s occurrence and abundance. The palm showed a preference for dry, well-drained soil, with high magnesium (Mg2+) content. Most colonies occurred in localities where Mg2+ content was very high. High alkaline concentrations also strongly corresponded to the presence of the emergent palm. Six of 15 tropical plant species were positively associated while the rest were negatively associated with H. costata. Four species (Casuarina rumphiana, Decaspermum bracteatum, Baeckea frutescens, and Pinanga rumphiana were strongly associated with H. costata, as indicated by their high association degrees using the Ochiai indices. The palm P. rumphiana appears to have similar habitat requirements as H. costata. The xerophytic palm H. costata tended to occupy sites with medium carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios where all sampled populations occurred in habitats with average C/N values more than 10. Based on the r-squared values, exchangeable Mg2+ and calcium (Ca2+) appeared to have more influence on plant density and frequency than on crown and basal areas. The exchangeable Ca2+ contents showed a similar pattern to Mg2+ concentrations. Curiously, potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), aluminium (Al3+) and hydrogen (H+) contents did not show significant relationships with the palm abundance parameters.

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K.M. Wong and Y.W. Low
Hybrid zone characteristics of the intergeneric hybrid bamboo × Gigantocalamus malpenensis (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 375 - 383]
The research was conducted to test hypotheses about the significance and influence of edaphic parameters and association patterns in governing the occurrence and abundance of the karst palm Hydriastele costata and its co-occurrence with other plant species in Waigeo Island, West Papua. The results indicate that a number of interrelating edaphic factors influence the palm’s occurrence and abundance. The palm showed a preference for dry, well-drained soil, with high magnesium (Mg2+) content. Most colonies occurred in localities where Mg2+ content was very high. High alkaline concentrations also strongly corresponded to the presence of the emergent palm. Six of 15 tropical plant species were positively associated while the rest were negatively associated with H. costata. Four species (Casuarina rumphiana, Decaspermum bracteatum, Baeckea frutescens, and Pinanga rumphiana were strongly associated with H. costata, as indicated by their high association degrees using the Ochiai indices. The palm P. rumphiana appears to have similar habitat requirements as H. costata. The xerophytic palm H. costata tended to occupy sites with medium carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios where all sampled populations occurred in habitats with average C/N values more than 10. Based on the r-squared values, exchangeable Mg2+ and calcium (Ca2+) appeared to have more influence on plant density and frequency than on crown and basal areas. The exchangeable Ca2+ contents showed a similar pattern to Mg2+ concentrations. Curiously, potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), aluminium (Al3+) and hydrogen (H+) contents did not show significant relationships with the palm abundance parameters.

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A. van der Ent
The ecology of ultramafic areas in Sabah: threats and conservation needs [Page 385 - 393]
Ultramafics are characterised by high concentrations of magnesium and nickel, low concentrations of calcium, low water retention capacity and low concentrations of essential plant nutrients in soils derived from this substrate. These extreme chemical soil condition force plants to adapt to survive. Sabah is one of the richest areas in the world for plant diversity on ultramafic substrates. A range of species, including a number of pitcher plants (Nepenthaceae), orchids (Orchidaceae) and trees and shrubs are endemic to ultramafic areas in Sabah, often occurring on a few, or even just a single, site. Ultramafic vegetation types in Sabah are severely threatened by land-clearing activities. Although only a small minority of the geological substrates in Sabah are ultramafic, ecosystems on these substrates have a disproportionately high number of endemic and rare plant species. Destruction of these types of ecosystems, in particular, can potentially result in extinction of plant species.

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Teodora D. Balangcod, Virginia C. Cuevas and Ashlyn Kim D. Balangcod
Cultivation and conservation of Lilium philippinense (Liliaceae), the Philippine endemic Benguet Lily [Page 395 - 407]
Lilium philippinense, endemic to the Cordillera Administrative Region (CCR) of the Philippines, grows on steep mountain slopes of Benguet and the southwestern part of the Mountain province. The flowers, fragrant and used as wedding decorations, occur from late May to July. Recent observations indicate declining populations of this species, which is said to be difficult to grow. Under greenhouse conditions, seed and bulb germination show only 27.63% and 16.67% success, respectively. The apparently acute sensitivity of this species to environmental factors such as soil pH, light, humidity, air and soil temperature, and possibilities for ex situ cultivation, are discussed.

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Ashlyn Kim D. Balangcod
Predicting distribution of Lilium philippinense (Liliaceae) over Luzon’s Cordillera Central Range, Philippines, using ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst [Page 409 - 423]
The growing importance of geographical information system (GIS)-based output in the analysis of biodiversity data is due to its convenient method of spatial analysis of data and prediction of plant geographical distribution. The Interpolated Distance Weight Method (IDW) of ArcMap ArcGIS 9 was used to determine possible areas of Lilium philippinense, endemic to the Cordillera Central Range (CCR) and declining in population due to habitat destruction, swidden activities and over-collecting. The variables considered in this study are soil pH, soil phosphorus content, organic matter, elevation, latitude and longitude. All variables were studied from actual L. philippinense sites and, using IDW, prediction maps were generated that identified areas where L. philippinense are likely to thrive. The Geostatistical Analyst of ArcGIS is a useful tool for predicting potential sites for introduction of L. philippinense as an extended in-situ conservation strategy.

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Y.M. Chan, L.S.L. Chua and L.G. Saw
Towards the conservation of Malaysian Johannesteijsmannia (Palmae) [Page 425 - 432]
A total of 20 new localities were recorded for the genus Johannesteijsmannia since 1972, demonstrating that the genus is less restricted in its distribution in Malaysia than previously thought. Nevertheless, Johannesteijsmannia is regarded as threatened with J. lanceolata, J. magnifica and J. perakensis assessed as endangered and J. altifrons as vulnerable. Endangered status was given to endemic species with restricted occurrence and small population size found in less than five localities. Recommended conservation measures include the need to expand in situ protection for populations in vulnerable habitats, inclusion of the species into forest management plans, and establishment of a sustainable seed harvesting regime. We also suggest regular monitoring of populations situated along forest boundaries and initiation of long-term conservation biology research. Habitats at risk in Jerantut-Benta (for J. lanceolata), Serendah and Bukit Kinta Forest Reserves (for J. magnifica), and Perak, i.e., Bintang Hijau, Kledang-Saiong and Bubu Forest Reserves (for J. perakensis) should be given protected status and ex situ conservation should be implemented.

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R. Kiew, A.R. Ummul-Nazrah & L.S.L. Chua
Conservation status of Paraboea species (Gesneriaceae) in Malaysia [Page 433 - 450]
Paraboea (including Trisepalum) is represented by 36 species in Malaysia and displays a high level of endemism (80%) and 31 of its species are restricted to limestone habitats. Two species are endemic in Sabah, of the 11 species in Sarawak 10 are endemic, and in Peninsular Malaysia 16 of the 24 species are endemic. Paraboea culminicola K.G.Pearce and P. obovata Ridl. are reinstated as distinct species and P. madaiensis Z.R.Xu & B.L.Burtt is reduced to synonomy in P. sabahensis Z.R.Xu & B.L.Burtt. Based on information from the Taxon Data Information Sheet, 15 species fall within the IUCN Category of Least Concern, four as Near Threatened, three as Vulnerable, eight as Endangered, four as Critically Endangered, and three as Data Deficient. None is Extinct. Most of the endangered species (94%) grow in Peninsular Malaysia on limestone hills that do not lie within the network of Totally Protected Areas and which are threatened by burning, quarrying and habitat destruction or disturbance, from resort development or recreation or temple activities. Assignment of conservation status is the first step in planning conservation management of endangered species, through advocating legal protection of a network of limestone hills, particularly those where critically endangered species grow (e.g., Tambun Hot Springs, Perak and the Lambok hills, Kelantan), monitoring populations of Critically Endangered species, taking steps towards resolving the status of the poorly known Data Deficient species, and the establishment of endangered species ex situ.

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M.Y. Chew and N.W. Haron
Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) habitat diversity in Peninsular Malaysia and its implications for conservation [Page 451 - 464]
Utricularia is a cosmopolitan carnivorous genus with more than 30 species in Malesia, of which 14 occur in Peninsular Malaysia. Utricularia species exhibit a range of habits including free-floating or affixed aquatic, semi-aquatic, terrestrial, lithophytic or epiphytic. In terms of habitat preference, three arbitrary groups are recognised, namely, habitat specialists, habitat generalists, and open and wayside pioneers. This grouping allows information on niches to be interpreted into conservation management measures. One third of the Peninsular Malaysian species are habitat specialists, found either in single localities or in one microhabitat. Among them, U. furcellata and U. scandens are listed as ‘Critically Endangered’ for the Red List for Peninsular Malaysia, whereas U. involvens and U. punctata are ‘Vulnerable’ and U. vitellina is ‘Rare’. Four species, U. caerulea, U. gibba, U. striatula and U. uliginosa, are found in many sites and microhabitats and are thus considered generalists, with their conservation status varying from ‘Vulnerable’ to ‘Least Concern’. Utricularia aurea, U. bifida and U. minutissima are adaptable pioneers able to co-exist with weeds and they may also be indicators of past disturbance. Two rare species, U. limosa and U. subulata, have not been relocated recently and their local habitat preferences are uncertain.

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Julisasi T. Hadiah
Establishment of Enrekang Botanic Garden, South Sulawesi: an effort to conserve plant diversity in the Wallacea region [Page 465 - 470]
The Enrekang Botanic Garden is newly established in Kabupaten Enrekang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, to document and conserve the diversity of plants from the Wallacea Region. The new botanic garden is a collaborative venture since 2005, in which Kebun Raya Bogor is assisting the local authorities of Sulawesi Selatan to form a development plan and establish the garden’s living collections. The garden has developed nursery facilities, an irrigation system, and road access. A total of 4601 living plants have been planted, representing 36 families, 156 genera and 232 species.

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E.H.S. Chin and A.L. Lim
Comparative pollen morphology of three Alternanthera species (Amaranthaceae) [Page 471 - 483]
The pollen morphology of three Alternanthera species, A. sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC., A. bettzickiana (Regel) G.Nicholson and A. paronychioides A.St.-Hil., is reported. Pollen grains of Alternanthera are dodecahedric, isopolar and small (12.56–23.57µm). The pollen morphology of the green and red varieties of A. sessilis shows no significant difference in the polar length [t (98) = -1.35, p > 0.05] and equatorial diameter [t (98) = 1.32, p > 0.05]. Apertures of A. sessilis and A. bettzickiana are pantoporate with twelve round pores, whereas the pollen grains of A. paronychioides distinctly differ from the other two species in having eighteen oval pores. The pores of all the species are covered by rectangular, sinuous, or elongated ektexinous bodies. The sexine is metareticulate and tectum perforate with unevenly distributed perforations at the top and base of the mesoporia, except in the pollen grains of A. bettzickiana, in which the perforations are distributed unevenly at the top of the mesoporia only.

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Wiguna Rahman
Flower biology of four epiphytic Malesian Gesneriads [Page 485 - 493]
Floral traits, flowering events, nectar production and reproductive success of Aeschynanthus horsfieldii R.Br., A. pulcher (Blume) G.Don, A. longiflorus A.DC. and Agalmyla parasitica C.B. Clarke were observed for sympatric populations in the Cibodas area, Mount Gede-Pangrango, West Java. All traits were significantly different among the species, but were associated with a bird pollination syndrome. Many flowers of Aeschynanthus longiflorus and Agalmyla parasitica failed to develop mature stigmas. Agalmyla parasitica flowers take a longer time to attract pollinators and receive pollen than the others and the filaments begin to bend earlier than the others. Aeschynanthus pulcher produces more nectar than the other species at the female phase, but the concentration was lower than in Aeschynanthus horsfieldii and Agalmyla parasitica. These seem to be correlated with the reproductive success of the respective species, with flowers of Aeschynanthus longiflorus and Agalmyla parasitica setting fewer fruit than the other two species. Flower traits and pollination shift are discussed in light of evidence that Aeschynanthus horsfieldii also attracts bumble bees (Bombus rucifes).

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Rogier de Kok
The genus Premna (Lamiaceae) and the presence of ‘pyro-herbs’ in the Flora Malesiana area [Page 495 - 498]
The genus Premna consists of 14 species in the Flora Malesiana area. The most common species in the region are all widespread. However, a series of morphologically closely-related, rare and generally geographically more restricted species are present in the region. These species can be characterised by three distinct morphological characters: 1) small decussate scales at the base of the young twigs, 2) a calyx that always has four isomorphic lobes, 3) a fruit that is clavoid in shape and almost single-seeded. The ecology and morphology of Premna herbacea Roxb. is unique in the genus and is the first recognised ‘pyro-herb’ in the Flora Malesiana area.

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Netty W. Surya and M. Idris
A preliminary study on in vitro seed germination and rooted callus formation of Tetrastigma rafflesiae (Vitaceae) [Page 499 - 505]
In vitro seed germination and induction of rooted callus formation was investigated as a preliminary study on the propagation of Tetrastigma rafflesiae as potential host plant material towards a sustainable conservation effort for Rafflesia. Seed germination of T. rafflesiae is epigeal with seedling emergence ranging 30–60 days after planting (dap), regardless of light presence. After 60 days, 54–60% of seeds germinated in media treatments. Callus formation began 7 dap in MS medium + 2 mg/L NAA, and 21 dap in MS medium + 2 mg/L 2,4-D. Browning of this medium due to phenolic compounds resulted from cutting a part of the hypocotyl. Rooting of the callus was obtained after 21 days on MS medium + 2 mg/L NAA, but was not evident with addition of 2 mg/L 2,4-D.

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A.T. Nor-Ezzawanis
Comparative anatomy of Grammitidaceae genera in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 507 - 517]
Grammitidaceae is represented by 12 genera and 52 species in Peninsular Malaysia. The rhizome morphology and anatomy of Peninsular Malaysian Grammitidaceae were studied to determine whether it can be used as a supplementary character in generic delimitation. Two types of rhizome (creeping dorsiventral or erect), three types of stipe arrangement on the rhizome (in horizontal rows, in whorls or spiral) and two types of stele (solenostele or dictyostele) were identified.

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Vera Budi Lestari Sihotang
Ethnomedicinal study of the Sundanese people at the Bodogol area, Gede Pangrango Mountain National Park, West Java [Page 519 - 526]
Traditional medicine is often considered adequate even in present times, especially when modern medical treatment is diffficult to obtain. Indonesia, a country with rich biodiversity and a multicultural society, has a wealth of medicinal plant knowledge. Observations on the ethnomedicinal practices of the Sundanese people, conducted in several villages (Cipeucang, Ciwaluh, Lengkong Girang, Lengkong Hilir and Sungapan) around the Bodogol area in West Java, are summarised.

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