Year of Publication: 2009, Vol. 61 (1)

Date Published October 2009
Argent, G. 
Rhododendron sojolense Argent (Ericaceae), A New Species of Rhododendron Subgenus Vireya from Sulawesi, Indonesia [Page 1- 6]
Rhododendron sojolense Argent (Ericaceae) is described as a new species of subgenus Vireya section Euvireya from Mt. Sojol on the northern arm of the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Comparisons with related species are made.

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Ashton, P.S.
[Page 7- 16]
A further five species and two subspecies of Syzygium, and one subspecies of Tristaniopsis (Myrtaceae) are described as a precursor to the account of the family in the Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Shorea contorta Vidal is here recorded form Borneo for the first time.

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Barcelona J.F., L.L. Co, D.S. Balete and N.A. Bartolome
Rafflesia aurantia (Rafflesiaceae): A New Species from Northern Luzon, Philippines [Page 17 - 28]
A new Philippine species of Rafflesia from the Sierra Madre Mountain Range of northeastern Luzon is described. Rafflesia aurantia is the ninth presumed endemic species thus far described from the Philippines, and the fifth reported from the island of Luzon. This species is apparently allied to R. tengku-adlinii of Sabah - both are small-sized and their overall color is similar. Biogeographical considerations and the morphological differences between our new species and R. tengku–adlinii, however, strongly support the recognition of two distinct evolutionary lineages/species. The conservation status of the fast disappearing lowland dipterocarp forests in northeastern Luzon, particularly the type locality in the Quirino Protected Landscape (QPL) is also discussed and suggests that the new species may be highly threatened.

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Hughes, M., Deden Girmansyah, Wisnu Handoyo Ardi and Nurainas
Seven New Species of Begonia from Sumatra [Page 29 - 44]
Seven new Begonia species are described from northern and western Sumatra: Begonia gracilicyma Irmsch. ex M.Hughes (unplaced to section), Begonia laruei M.Hughes (sect. Petermannia), Begonia multijugata M.Hughes (sect. Petermannia), Begonia pasamanensis M.Hughes (sect. Reichenheimea), Begonia puspitae Ardi (sect. Reichenheimea), Begonia tuberculosa Girmansyah (sect. Platycentrum) and Begonia verecunda M.Hughes (sect. Bracteibegonia). The conservation status of each species is assessed.

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Iwatsuki, Z., K.-T. Yong and T. Suzuki
A New Species of Fissidens (Bryopsida, Fissidentaceae) from Peninsular Malaysia [Page 49 - 54]
A new moss species collected from Peninsular Malaysia, Fissidens benitotanii Z.Iwats., K.-T.Yong & Tad.Suzuki is described. The species belongs to subgenus Fissidens section Fissidens. Most of the members in sect. Fissidens have smooth laminal cells, except for a few species, which included this newly described species, possess unipapillose laminal cells. Fissidens benitotanii is easily distinguished from other Fissidens species in the region by the following characteristics: narrowly lanceolate leaves with shortly excurrent costa, thin limbidia that disappear near leaf apex, and unipapillose laminal cells with distinctive sharp papilla.
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Kato, M. and S. Koi
Taxonomic Studies of Podostemaceae of Thailand. 3. Six New and a Rediscovered Species [Page 55 - 72]
Podostemaceae is an ecologically and morphologically unusual aquatic plant family. By examination of new collections from Thailand, we describe seven species, two of which are new species assigned to Terniopsis of Tristichoideae (T. chanthaburiensis, T. minor), four are new species assigned to Hydrobryum and Polypleurum of Podostemoideae (H. phetchabunense, P. insulare, P. prachinburiense, P. sisaketense), and one is Zeylanidium lichenoides rediscovered. In total, two subfamilies, 10 genera, and 42 species with four varieties occur in Thailand. A key to all the species is provided.

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Kiew, R.
Three New Species of Gesneriaceae from Kelantan, Malaysia [Page 73 - 80]
During a botanical expedition in 2007 to the Gunung Tera area in Kelantan, NE Peninsular Malaysia, three new species of Gesneriaceae were discovered: Henckelia kelantanensis Kiew, H. pauziana Kiew, and Ridleyandra kelantanensis Kiew.

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Kurzweil, H.
A Review of the Genus Plocoglottis (Orchidaceae) in Thailand [Page 81- 94]
A review of the genus Plocoglottis in Thailand is presented. Five species are recognised. Four of them, P. javanica, P. lowii, P. quadrifolia and P. gigantea, are widespread in Malesia and have their northernmost limit of distribution in Peninsular Thailand, and P. javanica is also known in Vietnam. The fifth, P. bokorensis is also found in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam and is in Thailand known from a few widely scattered localities in the central, eastern, southeastern, southwestern and northern regions.
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Low, Y.W. and K.M. Wong
Old Hats are Better: New Considerations and Taxonomic Changes in the Southeast Asian Gardenia tubifera Complex (Rubiaceae) [Page 101 - 128]
Gardenia tubifera sensu Corner is revised over its entire range in Southeast Asia. It is a heterogeneous complex of three distinct taxa, G. elata Ridl., G. subcarinata (Corner) Y.W.Low (elevated from varietal status) and G. tubifera Wall., mainly distinguished by calyx form, fruit size and ecological distribution. Two new varieties are described, G. elata var. longipedicellata K.M.Wong (from the Philippines) and G. subcarinata var. sumatrana Y.W.Low (from Sumatra). A key for identification, descriptions, nomenclatural notes, illustrations and exsiccatae examined.

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Neamsuvan, O., T. Seelanan and J.F. Veldkamp
A Revision of Bothriochloa Kuntze (Poaceae) in Thailand [Page 129 - 144]
Bothriochloa Kuntze (Poaceae) has 3 species in Thailand: B. bladhii, B. ischaemum, and B. pertusa. A key, descriptions, and illustrations are provided.

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Neamsuvan, O., T. Seelanan and J.F. Veldkamp
A Revision of Hemisorghum (Poaceae, Sorghinae) in Thailand [Page 145 - 150]
Hemisorghum C.E. Hubb. (Poaceae, Sorghinae) has a single species in Thailand: H. mekongense (A. Camus) C.E. Hubb. It occurs from Burma to Laos and Cambodia. In Thailand it is rare along riverbanks. A lectotype is designated.

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Rosing, W.C.
Corticolous Myxomycetes of Singapore [Page 151 - 158]
The moist chamber culture technique was employed to detect myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds) associated with the bark surface of living trees. Twenty-five species of myxomycetes in 13 genera were identified from moist-chambered bark samples collected at three localities in Singapore. Seventeen species are new records for Singapore. One species, Comatricha pseudonigra was previously known only from Mitchell River National Park in the state of Victoria, Australia.

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Suksathan, P. and P. Triboun
Ten New Species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) from Thailand [Page 159 - 184]
Ten new species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae), I. adenioides Suksathan & Keerat., I. charisma Suksathan & Keerat., I. daraneenae Suksathan & Triboun, I. doitungensis Triboun & Sonsupab, I. jiewhoei Triboun & Suksathan, I. oreophila Triboun & Suksathan, I. ruthiae Suksathan & Triboun, I. sirindhorniae Triboun & Suksathan, I. spectabilis Triboun & Suksathan, and I. tigrina Suksathan & Triboun from Thailand are described and illustrated.

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Turner, I.M. and J.F. Veldkamp
A History of Cananga (Annonaceae) [Page 189- 204]
The history of the name cananga in botanical nomenclature is outlined and clarified. Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson, is lectotypified. Cananga brandisiana (Pierre) I.M. Turner is proposed for Cananga latifolia (Hook.f. & Thomson) Finet & Gagnep., nom. superfl. The infraspecific taxonomy of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson is reviewed and the cultivar group names for plants producing ylang-ylang and cananga oil are corrected.

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de Wilde, W.J.J.O. and B.E.E. Duyfjes
Miscellaneous Cucurbit News III [Page 205 - 216]
The miscellaneous notes on Cucurbitaceae comprise: (1) the description of a new species in Kedrostis from Peninsular Malaysia; (2) three new combinations in Neoachmandra from Africa, five new combinations in Pilogyne from New Guinea and the Pacific; and (3) a modern description of Zehneria baueriana, from Norfolk Isl., western Pacific.

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Wong, S.Y., P.C. Boyce and J. Bogner
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo VIII: A Review of Piptospatha elongata in Sarawak [Page 217 - 234]
A review of Piptospatha elongata (Engl.) N.E. Br. in Sarawak is presented. The species is shown to comprise three morphologically and ecologically distinct taxa, two of which are new to science and herewith described as Piptospatha impolita S.Y.Wong, P.C. Boyce & Bogner and P. viridistigma S.Y.Wong, P.C. Boyce & Bogner. A new key to Piptospatha is presented and all species of the Elongata group are illustrated. Additionally, new observations on the morphologies separating the Piptospatha elongata Group and P. grabowskii Group sensu Bogner and Hay (2000) are presented.

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Year of Publication: 2008, Vol. 60 (1)

Date Published September 2008
Boyce, P.C. and S.Y. Wong
Studies on Homalomeneae (Araceae) of Borneo I.Four New Species and Preliminary Thoughts on Informal Species Groups in Sarawak [Page 1- 29]
Four new species of Homalomena (Araceae: Homalomeneae) are described from Sarawak. The current supraspecific taxonomy of the genus is reviewed and reasons for not recognizing at this time formal supraspecific units are justified although the need for species groupings is restated. In line with other large, taxonomically intractable groups, informal groups are proposed and circumscribed. All new species are illustrated.

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Boyce, P.C. and S.Y. Wong
Hapaline celatrix (Araceae: Caladieae) – A New Record for Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo [Page 31- 36]
Hapaline celatrix P.C.Boyce, a species known from only two collections and hitherto considered endemic to Brunei, has recently been collected in Gunung Mulu NP. An expanded description for the species, additional ecological notes and the first ever published field photographs are presented.

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Jutta, M.P.T. Ong and S.N. Phoon
New Records for the Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Family Orchidaceae 1. Appendicula floribunda, Bulbophyllum elevatopunctatum, Cymbidium sigmoideum and Dendrochilum bandaharaense [Page 37 - 43]
Four orchids, Appendicula floribunda (Schltr.) Schltr., Bulbophyllum elevatopunctatum J.J.Sm., Cymbidium sigmoideum J.J. Sm., and Dendrochilum bandaharaense J.J. Wood & J.B. Comber are new records for the Orchidaceae of Peninsular Malaysia.

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Kurzweil, H.
Studies in the Peristylus tentaculatus-complex (Orchidaceae) in Thailand [Page 45 - 54]
A large number of Thai specimens belonging to the Peristylus tentaculatus complex were examined in the present study. No characters were found to distinguish between the three previously recognised species, Peristylus tentaculatus (Lindl.) J.J.Sm., P. tipuliferus (C.S.P.Parish & Rchb.f.) Mukerjee and P. garrettii (Rolfe ex Downie) J.J.Wood & Ormerod, which are therefore considered as conspecific.

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Kurzweil, H.
Habenaria mandersii (Orchidaceae) Newly Recorded from Thailand with Notes on the H. hosseusii Group [Page 55- 61]
The occurrence of Habenaria mandersii Collett & Hemsl. in Thailand is newly reported. The species was previously only known in Myanmar and the former French Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam). It is very similar to H. hosseusii Schltr. and it is here suspected that it has frequently been mistaken for this species in the past. Short notes on the taxonomy of the H. hosseusii–mandersii–dentirostrata Tang & F.T.Wang group are also given.

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Turner, I. M.
Polyalthia saprosma (Annonaceae), a New Species from Borneo [Page 63 - 67]
Polyalthia saprosma I.M. Turner, sp. nov. (Annonaceae), is described from material hitherto confused with P. cinnamomea Hook.f. & Thomson. The new species is recorded from Sabah (Malaysia) and Kalimantan (Indonesia) on the island of Borneo.

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Vermeulen, J.J. and P. O’Byrne
Thirty Two New Species of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) from Sulawesi [Page 73 - 153]
Thirty two new species of Bulbophyllum, all from Sulawesi, are described.Names currently in use for various sections of Bulbophyllum are made junior synonyms to older sectional names that have been ignored so far, partly because their taxonomic content, as appears from the suite of species listed with the original descriptions of these sections, was ambiguous. These sectional names are lectotypified and re-instated.

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Yeh, C.-L., J.-H. Chen, C.-R. Yeh, S.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Hong, T.-H. Chiu and Y.-Y. Su
Musa yamiensis C. L. Yeh & J. H. Chen (Musaceae), a New Species from Lanyu, Taiwan [Page 165 - 172]
A new species of Musa L. (Musaceae), M. yamiensis C-L. Yeh & J-H. Chen, from Lanyu, Taiwan, is described and illustrated. Musa yamiensis is closely related to M. insularimontana Hayata, but differs from the latter in subhorizontal inflorescence, yellow-green with pink at apex bracts, 4 flowers in a bract in 1 row, and the size and structure of flowers.

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Year of Publication: 2007, Vol. 58 (2)

Date Published 20 June 2007
Boyce, P.C. 
Studies on the Alocasia Schott (Araceae-Colocasieae) of Borneo; 1. Two new species from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo [Page 141 - 154]
Two new species of Alocasia, A. chaii P.C.Boyce and A. infernalis PC.Boyce from Kapit Division. Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are described and included into an updated key to Bornean Alocasia. Both species are illustrated. 

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Guo, S.-L., T. Cao, B. C. Tan and G.-Y. Song 
Taxonomic notes on Asian species of Ortliotrichaceae (Bryopsida): Macromitrium with gymnostomous capsules,  [Page 155 - 177]
Nine taxa of the genus Macromitrium (Bryopsida, Orthotrichaceae) with gymnostomuous capsules in East Asia, including Macromitrium benguetense R.S. Willams., M. brevituberculatum Dix., M. formosae Card., M. gymnostomum Sull. & Lesq., M. heterodictyon Dix., M. holomitrioides Nog., M. robinsonii R.S. Williams, M. schmidii C. Muell., and M. taiheizanense Nog., are taxonomically revised. Macromitrium robinsonii and M. brevituberculatum are treated as new synonyms of M. gymnostomum, and M. benguetense as a new synonym of M. schmidii. Neotype was designated for M. schmidii, and types were selected for M. heterodictyon, M. Macromitrium schmidii var. macroperichaetialium S.L. Guo & T. Cao was described as a new variety. A key to the seven accepted gymnostomous species of Macromitrium in East Asia is also given. 

Kidyue, M., T. Boonkerd, Thaithong and T. Seelanan 
Variations in the Hoya verticillata complex in Thailand  [Page 179 - 198]
Hoya verticillata (Vahl) G.Don s.l. is a climbing epiphyte belonging to the family Apocynaceae. At present, the taxonomic status of this species in Thailand is still uncertain due to the great variability of size, shape and colour of leaf and flower. Morphological variations were explored in 500 fresh plants collected from 50 sites throughout the country. The collected specimens represent the H. verticillata complex, including two polymorphic species, namely H. verticillata s.l. and closely related species, H. rigida Kerr. Based on qualitative macro- and micro-morphological characters, the H. verticillata complex can be divided into nine groups. They can be distinguished by leaf shape, leaf base, venation pattern, leaf indumentum, and shapes of sepal, corona and corpusculum. Group I matched with the characteristics of H. rigida Kerr, which has ovate leaves with cordate base, 3-5 prominent nerves running from base to apex; indumentum absent on the abaxial surface; and lanceolate sepals. In contrast. Group II is an unidentified taxon that is close to H. verticillata (Vahl) G. Don var. citrina (Ridl.) Veldkamp. It is charaterized by broad ovate leaves with cordate base, 3-5 prominent nerves running from base to apex; and narrowly oblanceolate-oblong corpusculum. Groups III and IV have distinctly different vegetative characters and do not correspond to the previously described varieties of H. verticillata.  Their leaf venation is acrodromous, with 3 prominent nerves running from leaf base parallel to the midrib and reaching the apex, but they are different in their shape of leaf and coronal scale.  Group III has ovate leaves with subcordate base and elliptic coronal scale, while Group IV has elliptic-oblong leaves with cuneate base and ovate-lanceolate corona. Groups V-IX are still weak validity, having slightly discontinuity in leaf shape, base and venation; and shape of coronal scale.  They are treated in this paper as variable groups within H. verticillata var. verticillata.    

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Kiew, R. and J. Sang 
Begonia (Begoniaceae) from limestone hills in the Kuching Division, Sarawak, Bomeo, including nine new species  [Page 199 - 231]
Fifteen Begonia species are described from limestone hills in the Kuching Division, Sarawak, Borneo, of which nine are new: B. andersonii Kiew & S.Julia, B. burttii Kiew & S.Julia, B. chaiana Kiew & S.Julia, B. corrugata Kiew & S.Juha, B. kiamfeeii Kiew & S.Julia, B. paoana Kiew & S.Julia, B. penrissenensis Kiew & S.Julia, B. punchak Kiew & S.Julia and B. serapatensis Kiew & S.Julia. The distribution of these begonias confirms that the Bau limestone flora is phytogeographically distinct and shows that the Padawan Serian and Penrissen limestone areas also form two distinct phytogeographic areas and that there are few species shared between the three areas. 

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Parris, B.S. 
Five new genera and three new species of Grammitidaceae (Filicales) and the re-establishment of Oreogrammitis  [Page 233- 274]
Five new genera of Grammitidaceae (Filicales) are described: Ctenopterella Parris (12 species), Dasygrammitis Parris (six species). Radiogrammitis Parris (28 species). Tomophyllum (F..Fourn.) Parris (22 species) and Xiphopterella Parris (six species).  Oreogrammitis Copel. (Grammitidaceae) is re-established (110 species). New combinations are made in all six genera. Synonymy is provided, types are indicated, including those of synonyms, and lectotypes are chosen for some names.  Three new species are described from Peninsular Malaysia, Oreogrammitis malayensis Parris, O. kunstleri Parris and Xiphopterella gracilis Parris. 

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Turner, I.M.
Two new names and two new combinations in Malesian Annonaceae [Page 275 - 277]
Two later homonyms in Polyalthia are provided with new names: Polyalthia sinclairiana I-M.Turner replaces P. macropoda Kinig and Polyalthia dolichopoda I.M.Turner replaces P. tenuipes Merr. (1922, non Merr. 19'I2). The combination Dasymaschalon dasymaschalum (Blume) I.M.Turner. which is not a tautonym under the current code, is made. It replaces the superfluous Dasymaschalon blumei Finet & Gagnep. A new combination for Dasymaschalon dasymaschalim var. wallichii is also made.  Lectotypes are proposed for Polyalthia macropoda King, Polyalthia tenuipes Merr. (1922), and Unona dasymaschala Blume var. wallichii Hook. f.& Thomson. 

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Wong, S.Y. and P.C. Boyce 
Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Bomeo II: Aridarum crassum, a new species from Sarawak, Malaysian Bomeo [Page 279 - 286]
Aridarum crassum S.Y. Wong & PC. Boyce is described as a new species from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The existing key to the genus Aridarum Ridl. is amended to include the new species. 

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Year of Publication: 2007, Vol. 59 (1&2)

Date Published December 2007
A.M. Aguinaldo 
Selected Zingiberaceae Species Exhibiting Inhibitory Activity Against  Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: A Phytochemical Profile [Page 13- 21]
As part of the research efforts to identify plant species which may have potential against tuberculosis, a study was earlier conducted in collaboration with the Institute for TB Research, University of Illinois, Chicago, to randomly screen the crude alcoholic extracts of different plant species using the MABA assay, to determine any inhibitory activity against the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Of the five species belonging to the family Zingiberaceae, four were found to inhibit the growth of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. These species included Alpinia purpurata (Vieill.) K. Schum., Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B.L.Burtt. & R.M. Sm., Etlingeria elatior (Jack) R.M. Sm. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Each species was collected in bulk and subjected to extraction and several bioassay-directed chromatographic fractionations. The pure constituents obtained were analyzed for their structure using spectroscopic techniques. The bioactivity of the pure isolates, as minimum inhibitory concentration values, was likewise determined. The results showed the antitubercular activity to be present in the nonpolar extracts. Structure elucidation of the pure isolates revealed the presence of sterols (-sitosterol, stigmasterol), sterol derivatives (-sitosteryl--D-galactoside,-sitosteryl-3-O-6’-palmityl--D-glucoside), phenyldecanoids (6-shogaol and 6-gingerol) and a flavonoid (kumatakenin). Determination of the MIC showed higher activity of the phenyldecanoids than the steroids, the steroidal derivatives and the flavonoid. 

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B.B. Bau and A.D. Poulsen
Ethnobotanical Notes on Gingers of the Huon Peninsula in Papua New Guinea [Page 23 - 33]
Only few studies on useful gingers in Papua New Guinea have been published and we were only able to find information on two commonly used species. We conducted a 2-weeks preliminary study in the Huon Peninsula to document the species of gingers and their local names in the Kote language and their uses by the indigenous people. All species encountered were useful: four species of Etlingera, three species of Amomum and one species of Zingiber. It is recommended that further surveys should be conducted on gingers of Papua New Guinea to understand their taxonomy and ethnobotany in order to devise an appropriate ginger conservation program for the local communities.

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H.H. Bay, H.B. Sani, P.C. Boyce and S.L Sim
Rapid In Vitro Propagation of Hornstedtia reticulata (K. Schum.) K. Schum. [Page 35 - 40]
Seeds of Hornstedtia reticulata (K. Schum) K. Schum. collected from the wild were double surface sterilised with 30% Clorox, followed by 15% Clorox, each for 20 minutes. The sterilised seeds were sown on Gamborg B5 medium. The meristems of 12 weeks old seedlings, including the basal parts of leaf sheath, were used to induce multiple shoots in Gamborg B5 media incorporated with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) alone (2mg/L and 3mg/L) and in combination with α-naphthalena acetic acid (NAA) at different concentrations (0.5mg/L and 0.1mg/L). Observation showed that all the treatments were able to produce multiple shoots while the highest number of shoots was obtained from explants that were treated with 3mg/L BAP after three subcultures. 

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Lourdes B. Cardenas
Variations in Tissue Development and Secondary Product Elaboration of Hedychium coronarium J. König Floral Cultures Grown on Different Media [Page 41- 46]
The studies on the variations in tissue development and secondary product elaboration of Hedychium coronarium J. König, locally known as camia, in culture on different growth media, using the floral tube part, are reported. 

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E.W.C. Chan, Y.Y. Lim and T.Y. Lim
Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Rhizomes of Some Ginger Species in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 47 - 56]
The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of leaves and rhizomes of five wild and six cultivated ginger species belonging to seven genera were compared. Altitudinal variation in leaf TPC and AOA of four species of Etlingera Giseke was also studied. TPC was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. AOA was measured using the1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and expressed as ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC). Of the 11 wild and cultivated species screened, leaves of Etlingera had the highest TPC and AEAC, which were seven to eight times higher than those of rhizomes. Eight species had significantly higher leaf TPC and/or AEAC than rhizomes. Leaves of highland populations of Etlingera species had higher values than those of lowland counterparts. 

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M. Dan, B. Sabulal, V. George and P. Pushpangadan
Studies on the Rhizome Oils from Four Hedychium Species of South India: A Chemotaxonomic Approach [Page 57 - 64]
The genus Hedychium J. König (Zingiberaceae) with about 80 species has only four members in south India, viz., H. coronarium J. König, H. flavescens Carey ex Roscoe, H. spicatum var. acuminatum (Roscoe) Wall., and the endemic, H. venustum Wight. The chemical compositions of essential oils from the rhizomes of these four Hedychium species and their morphologies have been compared. The rhizome oils were characterized by analytical gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The number of identified constituents in the rhizome oils of H. coronarium, H. flavescens, H. spicatum var. acuminatum and H. venustum were 24 (99.7%), 27 (98.8%), 41 (98.9%), and 57 (99.1%) respectively. 1,8-Cineole, and -pinene and linalool constituted 70-75% of these rhizome oils. 1,8-Cineole was the single major constituent in the rhizome oils of H. coronarium (48.7%), H. venustum (45.4%), and H. spicatum var. acuminatum (44.3%). -Pinene (43.6%) was the major component in the rhizome oil of H. flavescens. The percentages of sesquiterpenes in these oils were H. venustum (24.0%), H. spicatum var. acuminatum (22.1%), H. coronarium (3.1%) and H. flavescens (1.3%). Oil yields from the rhizomes of H. venustum, H. spicatum var. acuminatum and H. coronarium were comparable (0.13-0.16%), but that from the rhizomes of H. flavescens was substantially low (0.05%). H. venustum and H. spicatum var. acuminatum are morphologically similar and significantly different from H. flavescens. The chemical data on essential oils are in good agreement with the relative morphological features of these four Hedychium species and thus chemotaxonomically significant.

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M.N. Hamirah, H.B. Sani, P.C. Boyce and S.L. Sim 
Micropropagation of Boesenbergia pulchella (Ridl.) Merr., a Potential Ornamental Plant  [Page 65 - 70]
Shoot tips of Boesenbergia pulchella (Ridl.) Merr. were cultured on Gamborg B5 medium containing 30% (w/v) sucrose and 2.8%  (w/v) Gelrite. Various concentration of plant growth regulators (PGR) were supplemented to B5 media, i.e., 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 1-4 mg/l alone or in combination with α-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA) at 0.1 mg/l or thidiazuron (TDZ) at 0.1-0.7 mg/l. Multiple shoot formation were found on both media supplemented with TDZ and BAP. A maximum of 11 shoots were produced after treatment with TDZ at 0.3 mg/l, which were the highest among other treatments. Acclimatization were conducted on (1:1 v:v) soil and vermiculite.

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H. Ibrahim, N. Khalid and K. Hussin
Cultivated Gingers of Peninsular Malaysia: Utilization, Profiles and Micropropagation [Page 71- 88]
There are approximately 160 species of Zingiberaceae belonging to 18 genera in Peninsular Malaysia. Roughly 16-20% are traditionally utilized by the indigenous folks as spices, condiments, vegetables, food flavours and medicines. The resurgence of interest in herbs and the potential lucrative anticipated revenues from the herbal industry have spurred renewed interest in exploiting traditional knowledge and practices into scientific realities. Current research priorities offer promising development of natural resources into neutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and biopharmaceuticals. Hence the need to profile or fingerprint species for quality control and consistency of the species utilized. It is also important to establish protocols for micropropagation as a means of providing consistent supply of stable and elite materials for mass propagation and commercialization. Selected examples of indigenous uses, species profiles and successful micropropagation of cultivated gingers are discussed.

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R. Johns
An Introduction to the New Guinea Database, with Notes on the Zingiberaceae, Specifically Riedelia Oliv. [Page 89 - 104]
The entries for the family Zingiberaceae in the New Guinea database includes records of over 1700 collections. Based on this information an overview of the family is presented. The extensive records in the database highlight several problems. A considerable number of collections in the family have not been identified at generic level (190 collections) and many collections in each genus are not identified at the species level. This particularly applies to the larger New Guinea genera: Alpinia Roxb. and Riedelia Oliv., respectively with 256 and 236 collections. In this paper particular attention is paid to the neo-endemic genus Riedelia, which is represented by 85 described taxa in New Guinea. The genus has not been revised since 1916. 

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W. Kaewsri and Y. Paisooksantivatana
Morphology and Palynology of Amomum Roxb. in Thailand [Page 105 - 112]
Morphological characteristics and pollen morphology of Thai Amomum Roxb. were studied in order to aid identification and classification. Thirty-one species collected during our field expedition, only 13 species could be identified to species, and 18 species will be proposed as new to science. Investigation of both vegetative and reproductive organs reveals that leaf, flower and fruit are useful for identification/separating the species of Amomum. Pollen grains of 14 representatives were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to reveal their morphology and usefulness for infrageneric classification. Two types of exine sculpture, psilate and echinate, were found. Classification by using pollen morphology does not support grouping by the previous authors that emphasized fruit shapes.

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W.J. Kress, M.F. Newman, A. Poulsen and C. Specht  
An Analysis of Generic Circumscriptions in Tribe Alpinieae (Alpinioideae: Zingiberaceae) [Page 113 - 127]
Recent investigations based on molecular phylogenies have resulted in new insights into the evolutionary relationships and classification of the Zingiberaceae and various genera within the family, e.g., Globba, Hedychium, Roscoea, Etlingera, Alpinia, and Amomum.  At the same time taxonomic boundaries of many traditionally recognized genera have been challenged, e.g., Curcuma, Boesenbergia, Caulokaempferia, Alpinia, and Amomum. Within the subfamily Alpinioideae the results of our analyses will require the recircumscription of many of the genera included in the tribe Alpinieae. These phylogenetic results are based on a supermatrix analysis of ITS and matK sequence data and are discussed in the context of complementary morphological features and geographic distributions. Seventeen clades are recognized at the generic level although some remain tentative and in need of additional analysis before final taxonomic circumscriptions can be made. A revised classification will require that many species be placed in new or different genera, which will greatly facilitate identification and our understanding of morphological evolution in the family as well as species and genera therein.

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K.H. Lau, C.K. Lim and K. Mat-Salleh 
Materials for a Taxonomic Revision of Geostachys (Baker) Ridl. (Zingiberaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia [Page 129 - 138]
Materials for a taxonomic revision of the Geostachys (Baker) Ridl. in Peninsular Malaysia, resulting from recent fieldwork are presented, with notes on the threat assessment of extant species. Twelve of the 13 previously known species were studied in situ, and two newly described species have also been found (Geostachys belumensis C.K. Lim & K.H. Lau and G. erectifrons K.H. Lau, C.K. Lim & K. Mat-Salleh), bringing the current total to 15 taxa, all highland species, found in hill, sub-montane and upper montane forests ranging from 600 m to 2000 m a.s.l. Thirteen out of 15 of the known species are believed to be hyper-endemic, found so far only in their respective type localities.

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M.F. Newman
Materials Towards a Revision of Aulotandra Gagnep. (Zingiberaceae)  [Page 139 - 143]
Aulotandra Gagnep. has recently been transferred from the subfamily Alpinioideae, tribe Alpinieae, to the subfamily Siphonochiloideae. Materials towards a revision of Aulotandra and Siphonochilus J.M.Wood & Franks are presented.
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A.D. Poulsen 
Etlingera Giseke of Java [Page 145 - 172]
Nine species of Etlingera Giseke are known in Java, though two of them have not been collected recently. An identification key is given, along with descriptions, illustrations, and notes on local names, uses, and ecology. The conservation status of each species is assessed. Two species remain enigmatic and the remaining seven, including E. parva, which is synonomized with E. brachychila, are all found in Borneo, Sumatra and/or the Malay Peninsula.

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S. Ruamrungsri, J. Uthai-butra, O. Wichailux and P. Apavatjrut 
Planting Date and Night Break Treatment Affected Off-Season Flowering in Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. [Page 173- 182]
Off-season flowering of Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. was studied in Chiang Mai province of Thailand where the weather in winter is cool with temperatures between 16 to 30 °C, RH from 65 to 70 %, and 10 hrs of daylight. Rhizomes were stored at 15 °C for the 6 months from February to July, 2004. After root emergence, plants were grown under different night break treatments. Night break treatments were conducted by supplying 2 hrs of light daily from 20.00 to 22.00 hrs. The light source was 100 watt incandescent light bulbs. There were three treatments: T1, night breaks supplied from sprouting of the first shoot until the floral spike reached one inch long; T2 as T1, but continued until the first floret opened; T3, was a control treatment with no night break. Each treatment was carried out at different planting dates, i.e., August 9, September 9, October 9 and November 9. Plant height, number of plants per cluster, flowering percentage and flower qualities (number of coma bracts, number of green bracts, spike length and length of flower stalk) were recorded. The results showed that plant growth and flower qualities were similar with and without the night break treatment at the 9 August planting date. However, the September to October planting dates required night break treatments to promote flowering and maintain flower qualities.

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P. Saensouk, P. Theerakulpisut, B. Kijwijan and S. Bunnag
Effects of 2,4-D on Callus Induction from Leaf Explants of Cornukaempferia larsenii, nom. sched. Saensouk [Page 183- 188]
Callus was induced from young leaves of Cornukaempferia larsenii nom. sched. Saensouk on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and various concentrations of  2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in light and dark conditions. The highest number of callus formation, percentage of callus formation and average weight of callus were obtained from young leaves cultured on the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D in the light condition. The callus could not be regenerated to plantlets in media added with various concentrations of NAA and BA.

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G.J. Sharma, P. Chirangini and K.P. Mishra 
Evaluation of anti-oxidant and cytotoxic properties of tropical ginger, Zingiber montanum (J. König) A. Dietr.   [Page 189 - 201]
Many members belonging to the family Zingiberaceae are well known for their uses in traditional medicine for curing various ailments since times immemorial. The rhizomes of some medicinal Zingiberaceae are widely used in the dietary intakes. Curcumin present in turmeric and gingerol in ginger have been known to possess anti-oxidant properties. The northeast India, which lies within the Indo-Burmese mega-biodiversity ‘hotspot’ region, is a genetic treasure house of biological resources with good representation of Zingiberaceous species. The present studies were conducted to assess the free radical scavenging antioxidant properties of rhizome extract of Zingiber montanum (J. König) A. Dietr [=Z. cassumunar Roxb.] using various chemical assay systems like diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide (O2-) and hydroxyl (OH.) radical scavenging methods. Increased percent of DPPH decoloration from 50-500 g/ml indicated concentration dependent scavenging activity of DPPH radicals by the crude extract of this species. Even at a low concentration of 1 g/ml, the rhizome extract showed strong (75%) OH- scavenging activity. Similarly, the crude extract showed a concentration dependent inhibition of O2 - radical production where a concentration of 50 g/ml almost showed 100% inhibition. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay using NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell line. Only 28% cytotoxicity was observed up to a concentration of 100 g/ml. The results strongly support the therapeutic use of crude rhizome extract of Z. montanum for its dietary intake and use as traditional medicine, thereby suggesting its potential as promising radioprotective agent.

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P. Sirirugsa, K. Larsen and C. Maknoi 
The Genus Curcuma L. ( Zingiberaceae ): Distribution  and Classification with Reference to Species Diversity in Thailand [Page 203 - 219]
The genus Curcuma L. is one of the largest genera in the Zingiberaceae, with about 80 species, and distributed throughout tropical Asia from India to South China, Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea and Northern Australia. In Thailand, thirty-eight species have been found. Taxonomic knowledge of this genus is necessary for citing correctly the species used commercially as spices, ornamentals and medicines. Formerly, Curcuma was a member of the tribe Hedychieae.  According to the new classification of the Zingiberaceae proposed by Kress et al. (2000), this genus belongs to the tribe Zingibereae. This paper presents an overview of the genus Curcuma and its species diversity in Thailand. The infrageneric classification of the genus based on morphology and molecular evidences with reference to species diversity in Thailand is discussed. The representative taxa, their distribution and uses are provided.

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J.-J. Song, P. Zou, J.-P. Liao, Y.-J. Tang and Z.-Y. Chen  
Floral Ontogeny in Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (Zingiberaceae) and Its Systematic Significance [Page 221 - 230]
Floral organ development of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. begins with the initiation of sepal primordia, and then the three common primordia comprising petal and inner whorl androecial members. Each common primordium separates into a dorsal petal and a ventral androecial member. The adaxial common primordium begins to separate first to produce the functional stamen and the adaxial petal. Subsequently the two abaxial common primordia separate to form two abaxial inner androecial members and two abaxial petals. After the three common primordia completed their differentiation, three outer androecial members are formed, of which the two adaxial primordia have a slow growth and finally become two lateral staminodes, while the abaxial primordium ceases growth and disappears gradually. The gynoecium is the last floral structure to initiate. Soon after the initiation of gynoecial primordium, the two abaxial inner androecial members form two secondary primordia. Compared to the development of the anther on the fertile stamen, the secondary primordia may be homologous with the primordia of the pollen sacs. This provides new evidence supporting the view that the labellum was derived from the two inner whorled androecial members. 

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Year of Publication: 2006, Vol. 58(1)

Date Published 18 December 2006
Boyce, P.C. 
Rhaphidophora tenuis (Araceae: Monstereae) Resurrected [Page 1 - 5]
Rhaphidophora tenuis Engl, a species considered synonymous with the widespread and variable R. korihahii Hassk. In the most recent revision ot Bornean species is resurrected as an endemic to Sarawak and Brunei. A full description of R. tenuis is presented together with a modification to the most recent published key to Rhaphidophora in Borneo and photographs. This reinstatement takes to the number of Rhaphidophora species recognised for Borneo. 

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Boyce, P.C. 
A trio of new Schismatoglottis (Araceae: Schismatoglottideae) from Sarawak. Borneo [Page 7 - 18]
Three new species of Schismatoglottis - Schismatoglottis jelandii P.C.Boyce & S.Y. Wong, Schismatoglottis jepomii P.C.Boyce & S.Y. Wong and Schismatoglottis maelii P.C.Boyce S.Y.Wong - from Sarawak are described and included in the amendments to the key to Bornean Schismatoglottis published by Hay & Yuzammi (2000). All are illustrated. 

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Boyce, P.C. 
Rhaphidophora crassifolia Hook.f. (Araceae: Monstereae): a new record for Sarawak and notes on the Rhaphidophora 'Hongkongensis" group in Borneo  [Page 19 - 24]
Rhaphidophora crassifolia Hook.f., a species hitherto known only from Peninsular Malaysia and southern Thailand is recorded as new for Sarawak and takes to 16 the number of species of Rhaphidophora for Borneo, of which five are endemic. A species description and photographs with a new key to the Rhaphidophora species in Borneo is given. 

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Boyce, P.C. and S. Julia 
A review of entire-leaved Tacca (Dioscoreaceae) in Sarawak, Borneo  [Page 25 - 39]
A review of entire-leaved Tacca in Sarawak is presented; four species are recognized. Tacca borneensis Ridl. is resurrected and problems concerning the interpretation of T. integrifolia sensu Drenth are reviewed.  The first complete description of T. bibracteata Drenth is published. One new species, T. reducta P.C.Boyce & S.Julia, is proposed. Significant floral and fruiting morphologies are highlighted and a key to all Tacca species (entire and palmate/dracontioid-leaved) in Sarawak is provided. All entire-leaved species in Sarawak are illustrated. 
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Maknoi, C. and T. Jeniittikul 
A new species of Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae) from Southeast Asia  [Page 41- 45]
Curcuma larsenii C. Maknoi & T. Jeniittikul, sp. nov. from Southeast Asia (Thailand, Laos and Vietnam) is described and illustrated. 

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Shafreena, A. and P.C. Boyce
A hitherto overlooked field identification character for Bornean Scaphochlamys Baker [Page 47 - 53]
The consistent presence of a pulvinus above the insertion at the base of the petiole of Scaphochlamys species has been observed in Sarawak and is here proposed as a useful field character for recognizing and separating Scaphochlamys Baker from its nearest allied taxa Boesenbergia Kuntze and Haplochorema K.Schum. 

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Watthana, S., T. Hidayat. M. Ito and T. Yukawa
[Page 55 - 79]
The phylogeny of the orchid genus Pomatocalpa has been analyzed using morphological and molecular (matK and ITS) data. First, 9 representative species of Pomatocalpa, viz. P. armigerum (King & Pantl.) T.Tang & F.Wang, P. bambusarum (King & Pantl.) Garay, P. bhutanicum N.P.Balakr., P. color (Lindl.) J.J.Sm., P. spicatum Breda, P. kunstleri (Hook.f.) J.J.Sm., P. diffusum Breda, P. macphersonii (F.Muell.) T.E. Hunt and P. tonkinense (Gagnep.) Seidenf. and 11 neighboring genera (according to morphological features), viz. Acampe, Cleisostoma, Micropera, Haraella, Pelathanteria, Robiquetia, Sarcoglyphis, Smitinandia, Staurochilus, Trichoglottis and Ventricularia, were included to test the monophyly and phylogenetic position of the genus Pomatocalpa. This analysis was based on morphological data only, and the genera Seidenfadenia, Vanda and Ascocentrum were chosen as outgroups. Second, the interspecific phylogenetic relationships within Pomatocalpa were analyzed on the basis of matK and ITS sequences and morphological characters. The molecular analyses included seven species of Pomatocalpa, viz. P. undulatum (Lindl.) J.J.Sm., P. bicolor, P. diffusum, P. kunstleri, P macphersonii, P. maculosum (Lindl.) J.J.Sm. and P. spicatum, and used Acampe ochracea (Lindl.) Hochr., Ventricularia tenuicaulis (Hook.f.) Garay and Acampe ochracea (Lindl.) Hochr., Ventricularia tenuicaulis (Hook.f.) Garay and Smitinandia micrantha (Lindl.) Holtt. as outgroups. The morphological analysis included all 13 accepted species of Pomatocalpa by us and used Acampe, Ventricularia, and Smitinandia as outgroups. Based on the results of an unpublished precursory study, the monotypic genus Haraella was included in the ingroup in both the morphological and molecular analyses. In addition to the separate analysis evidence analysis was made, combining information from matK, ITS, and morphological data Pomatocalpa turned out to be monophyletic, but only after exclusion of P. armigerum (= Cleisostoma armigerum King & Pantl.), P. bambusarum {= Cleisostoma bambusarum (King & Pantl.) King & Pantl.) and P. bhutanica (= Cleisostoma bhutanicum (N.P.Balakr.) S. Watthana, comb. nov.). Accoding to matK, morphology, and total evidence, Pomatocalpa is monophyletic without Haraella. According to ITS data, on the other hand, Haraella is nested in Pomatocalpa. The incongruence of matK and ITS sequences may be because Haraella retrocalla is of an ancient hybrid origin. When delimited according to this paper, the genus Pomatocalpa is probably monophyletic and is characterized by a single unique synapomorphy, i.e., the presence of a narrow longitudinal groove at the end of the front wall of the spur. The interspecific relationships in Pomatocalpa were poorly resolved.  

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Zhu, W., H. Wang and B.G. Li 
[Page 81 - 132]
The species composition, The species composition, physiognomy and biogeography of tropical montane rain forest in southern Yunnan, SW China, have been studied based on data from 10 sampling plots and a complete floristic inventory. Two separate communities are recognized: a Mastixia euonymoides-Phoebe megacalyx forest and a Parakmeria yunnanensis-Gymnanthes remota forest based mainly on species composition and forest structures. The tropical montane rain forest is characterized by evergreen meso-phanerophytes and micro-phanerophytes with simple, leathery and entire mesophyllous leaves. more or less frequent woody lianas and epiphytes, abundant herbaceous phanerophytes. However, it has few buttresses or cauliflory in physiognomy. The montane rain forest has similar species diversity to the lowland seasonal rain forest in the region. This indicates that species richness is not necessarily reduced with increasing altitude. We suggest this rain forest is a type of lower montane rain forest based mainly on its physiognomy, structure and floristics, but one that occurs at a higher altitude than those in equatorial SE Asia.The montane rain forest is dominated, in terms of species richness, by Lauraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Theaceae, Rubiaceae and Papilionaceae, but by Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Mastixiaceae and Nyssaceae in terms of phytosociological importance. In floristic composition, a total of 623 native species in 327 genera and 115 families of seed plants were recorded from the montane rain forest, of which recognisably 'tropical' elements contributed about 78.9% at the generic level and more than 80% at the specific level. Plants of tropical Asian distribution contribute 63.7% of the total sum of species. We conclude that the montane rain forest has strong tropical Asian affinities floristically even though it occurs at the northern margin of mainland SE Asia and at a higher altitude.

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