Image of Researcher, Dr David MIDDLETON.

Email Address: David_Middleton@nparks.gov.sg


Research Interests and International Engagement

My research focus is on the plant biodiversity of Singapore and the rest of Southeast Asia. I am the editor-in-chief of the Flora of Singapore which is a project to revise and publish all species of bryophytes, lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms that are native, naturalised or casual in Singapore. Three volumes were published in 2019 of the planned 14 volumes to be published over ten years. My taxonomic research is particularly on the families Apocynaceae and Gesneriaceae. I have undertaken revisions of several genera in Apocynaceae, subfamilies Rauvolfioideae and Apocynoideae, and contributed to the major Southasian Flora projects. My other main area of research interest is on the taxonomy of Southeast Asian Gesneriaceae, including collaboration with phylogenetic systematics to clarify generic delimitations. I also have an interest in the ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, particularly in providing tools for the identification of taxa. In addition I am the editor-in-chief of Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore, on the Board of the Flora Malesiana Foundation, the Editorial Board of the Flora of Thailand and the Editorial Board of the Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany).


Current Research

  1. Flora of Singapore.
  2. The diversity and conservation of plants in Singapore and the wider Southeast Asian region.
  3. Coordination and taxonomic work on the Gesneriaceae for the Flora of Thailand.
  4. International collaboration with other Gesneriaceae systematists to clarify generic limits.


Selected  Publications

Camara-Leret, R. et al. [99 authors including Middleton, D.J.]. (2020). New Guinea has the world's richest flora. Nature 584: 579–583.
Lindsay, S. & Middleton, D.J. (2020). Adiantaceae. In: Parris et al. (ed.) Flora of Peninsular Malaysia ser. I, 3: 113–156.
Middleton, D.J., Armstrong, K., Baba, Y., Balslev, H., Chayamarit, K., Chung, R.C.K., Conn, B.J., Fernando, E.S., Fujikawa, K., Kiew, R., Luu, H.T., Mu Mu Aung, Newman, M.F., Nobuyuki, T., Tagane, S., Thomas, D.C., Tran, T.B., Utteridge, T.M.A., Van Welzen, P.C., Widyatmoko, D., Yahara, T. & Wong, K.M. (2019). Progress on Southeast Asia’s Flora projects. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 71: 267–319.
Middleton, D.J. & Turner, I.M. (2019). History of taxonomic research in Singapore. In: Middleton, D.J., Leong-Škorničková, J. & Lindsay, S. (ed.) Flora of Singapore 1: 15–36.
Middleton, D.J. & Rodda, M.L. (2019). Apocynaceae. In: Middleton, D.J., Leong-Škorničková, J. & Lindsay, S. (ed.) Flora of Singapore 13: 421–630.
Endress M.E., Meve U., Middleton D.J., Liede-Schumann S. (2018). Apocynaceae. In: Kadereit J., Bittrich V. (ed.) Flowering Plants. Eudicots. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol 15: 207–411. Springer, Cham.

Middleton, D.J., Khew, G.S., Poopath, M., Möller, M. & Puglisi, C. (2018). Rachunia cymbiformis, a new genus and species of Gesneriaceae from Thailand. Nordic Journal of Botany 36: 1–6.

Puglisi, C. & Middleton, D.J. (2017). A revision of Microchirita (Gesneriaceae) in Thailand. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 69(2): 211–284.
Middleton, D.J. (2016). A revision of Aeschynanthus (Gesneriaceae) in Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 68: 1–63.
Puglisi, C., Yao, T.L., Milne, R., Möller, M. & Middleton, D.J. (2016). Generic recircumscription in the Loxocarpinae (Gesneriaceae), as inferred by phylogenetic and morphological data. Taxon 65: 277–292.
Middleton, D.J., Nishii, K., Puglisi, C., Forrest, L.L. & Möller, M. (2015). Chayamaritia (Gesneriaceae: Didymocarpoideae), a new genus from Southeast Asia. Plant Systematics and Evolution 301: 1947–1966.
Scott, S.M. & Middleton, D.J. (2014). A revision of Ornithoboea (Gesneriaceae). Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 66: 73–119.
Middleton, D.J., Atkins, H.J., Luu, H.T., Nishii, K. & Möller, M. (2014). Billolivia, a new genus of Gesneriaceae from Vietnam with five new species. Phytotaxa 161: 241–269.
Middleton, D.J. (2014). Apocynaceae, subfamilies Rauvolfioideae and Apocynoideae. Flora of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam 33: 1–276.
Middleton, D.J. & Möller, M. (2012). Tribounia, a new genus of Gesneriaceae from Thailand. Taxon 61: 1286-1295.
Middleton, D.J. & Triboun, P. (2012). Somrania, a new genus of Gesneriaceae from Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 40: 9–13.
Middleton, D.J. (2011). Apocynaceae, subfamilies Rauvolfioideae and Apocynoideae. Flora of Peninsular Malaysia ser. II: Seed plants 2: 1–235.
Middleton, D.J. (2007). Apocynaceae, subfamilies Rauvolfioideae and Apocynoideae. Flora Malesiana 18: 1–471.
Middleton, D.J. (2004). Apocynaceae. Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak vol. 5: 1–61.
Middleton, D.J. (1999). Apocynaceae. Flora of Thailand 7(1): 1–152.



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