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CITES Classification of Endangered Species

CITES classifies endangered species under three categories.


Appendix I

The species listed in Appendix I face high risk of extinction if their trade is not severely restricted. Thus, trade of these species for commercial purposes is generally prohibited.

Exceptions are captive-bred species from CITES-registered captive breeding farms, which can only be traded after traders have obtained the relevant CITES permits.

These permits are issued under special circumstances to organisations such as zoological gardens, bird parks, research institutions, and museums.

Examples of Appendix I species: 
  • Apes
  • Certain species of monkeys
  • Elephants
  • Rhinoceroses
  • Tigers
  • Marine turtles
  • Most species of bears
  • Pangolins
  • Certain species of parrots
  • Lady’s slipper orchid


Appendix II

The species listed in Appendix II may be threatened to extinction if trade of these species is not regulated. Commercial trade in these species is allowed only after traders have obtained the relevant CITES permits.

Examples of Appendix II species:
  • Certain species of monkeys
  • Crocodiles
  • Pythons
  • Monitor lizards
  • Parrots
  • Tortoises
  • Certain species of freshwater turtles
  • Sturgeons
  • Bird-wing butterflies
  • Seahorses
  • Hard corals
  • Giant clams
  • Certain species of sharks
  • American ginseng
  • Certain species of orchid
  • Ramin
  • Agarwood
  • Rosewood


Appendix III 

Species listed in Appendix III are endangered in some countries. To import these species, you need a Certificate of Origin from the exporting/re-exporting country. If the species originates from a country that lists it on CITES Appendix III, you will need a CITES permit from the country of export and a CITES import permit from NParks to import it into Singapore.

Examples of Appendix III species:
  • Wild water buffalo
  • Walruses
  • Mongooses
  • Certain species of deer
  • Pheasants
  • Foxes
  • Certain species of turtles


For a complete list of CITES-listed animal and plant species, refer to the CITES Appendices

Visit the CITES gallery for pictures of CITES-listed species.

For more information on the process for the import, export, re-export, and transshipment of all wildlife and plants, including CITES species, refer to the resources below:

Last updated on 10 January 2024

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