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Singapore's National Targets (Addendum, 20 May 2019)

The Tenth Meeting of the Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP-10) in 2010 adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Targets ( COP-10 called on Parties “to develop national and regional targets, using the Strategic Plan and its Aichi Targets, as a flexible framework, in accordance with national priorities and capacities …”. Singapore’s national targets have been developed in the context of its unique circumstances as a highly urbanised city-state of 724.2 km2 (2018) and one of the most densely populated countries in the world.




Target 1: By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.

By 2020, there will be a 30% increase in the number public and private organizations that participate in biodiversity conservation activities


By 2020, Singapore will achieve a 5% increase in the total number of citizen scientists

Target 2: By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.

Apply science and ecological principles into land use planning.

Target 3: By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socioeconomic conditions.

No target will be tracked as this target is aimed at larger countries with substantive natural resources and have extractive industries or large scale agriculture

Target 4: By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.

Achieve overall national recycling rate of 65% in 2020



Target 5: By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.

By 2020, 7.5% of Singapore will remain as natural areas



Target 6: By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits.

No target will be tracked as fisheries is not significant in Singapore’s context. However, Singapore shares its current practice on regulating the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) listed marine fish and invertebrates; and preventing the import and transhipment of illegal products in relation to IUUF (Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing):


On implementing CITES

The National Parks Board (NParks) is the national CITES authority responsible for the implementation and enforcement of CITES in Singapore. NParks administers the Endangered Species (Import and Export) Act (ESA), which is the national legislation to give effect to CITES in Singapore. NParks regulates trade in all CITES species, including any CITES-listed marine fish and invertebrates, through issuance of CITES permits and certificates. Under the ESA, NParks is empowered to take enforcement action against any illegal CITES shipment traded (including transit) through Singapore.


On prevention of import and transhipment of illegal fish products in relation to IUUF

Singapore has only one fish carrier that carries out transhipment of fish products in the seas managed by Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) and all Singapore-flagged fish carrier transhipment reports on transhipment of fish products in the seas managed by RFMOs, are monitored by the Singapore Food Agency (SFA) to ensure that no illegal fish products in relation to IUUF are transhipped. SFA also works with seafood traders to comply with RFMOs that Singapore is cooperating with, so as to ensure that no illegal fish products in relation to IUUF are imported.


On monitoring of local fisheries

Commercial fishing vessels licensed by SFA are allowed to conduct fishing activities within territorial waters only. All catch by the commercial fishing vessels is reported and data is collated.


Target 7: By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.

No target will be tracked as these sectors are not significant in Singapore. However, Singapore shares its current practices for agriculture and aquaculture. There is no forestry sector in Singapore.


Current practices for agriculture

Land is a scarce resource in Singapore and has to be managed sustainably. For agriculture land, the allowable farming activities are tagged to licences and licensing conditions. SFA ensures that farmers comply to our licensing conditions through a routine surveillance programme. These policies and practices help to ensure that the farmland is put to proper use.


During the planning phase, SFA consults agencies such as NParks to ensure that the farming activities do not result in negative externalities and are sustainable (i.e. do not encroach into nature reserves, minimising the impact on natural ecosystems). Where deemed necessary, an environmental impact assessment may be required or effected.


Current practices for aquaculture

For aquaculture, a study to determine the carrying capacity of Singapore’s aquaculture sites in the Straits of Johor has been completed. SFA will also be initiating studies to assess the suitability of aquaculture in southern waters. These studies would assist SFA to develop policy measures to optimise and manage the aquaculture industry in a more sustainable manner.

Target 8: By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.

By 2020, annual mean of PM2.5 to reduce to 12ug/m3


By 2020, set ambient SO2 levels at annual mean of 15ug/m3


By 2020, set ambient SO2 levels at 24-hour mean of 50ug/m3

Target 9: By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment.

By 2020, a potentially invasive alien species list for Singapore will be compiled.



Target 10: By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.

Singapore will assess and enhance Singapore’s resilience to climate change through the development of climate change adaptation strategies across multiple government agencies.

Target 11: By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water areas, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.









By 2020, 7% of terrestrial and inland water, and 0.5% of coastal and marine areas will remain as natural areas


By 2020, Singapore will develop a total of 360km of park connectors and 100 km of Nature Ways to enhance ecological connectivity

Target 12: By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained.

By 2020, Singapore will establish populations of 11 locally endangered species in a number of new habitats based on the following:

Target Species

Targeted sites for reintroduction (by 2020)

Johora singaporensis (Singapore freshwater crab)


Nyctixalus pictus

(Cinnamon bush frog)


Cliona patera

(Neptune’s cup sponge)


Gardineroseris planulata (Honeycomb coral)


Madracis kirbyi

(Hard coral)


Fagraea splendens (Epiphyte)


Ficus stricta

(Strangling fig)


Margaritaria indica



Ormocarpum cochinchinense



Scolopia macrophylla



Tetrastigma rafflesiae (Climber)



Target 13: By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.

Target is more relevant to Parties with significant agricultural sector.

Target 14: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.

More relevant to Parties where women, indigenous and local communities and the poor and vulnerable rely on ecosystem services for their daily needs.

Target 15: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.

Singapore will report on the accounting of carbon stock and carbon flux in vegetation and land use every 2 years.

By 2020, natural ecosystems will be enhanced or restored within 3 selected parks.


By 2020, the habitats of 3 coastal areas would be restored and enhanced, by incorporating design elements that are suitable for coastal substrates


By 2020, 25,000 trees and shrubs will be planted across the nature parks and nature reserves as part of the Forest Restoration Action Plan 2019-2029.

Target 16: By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation.

By 2020, preliminary policy and guideline on Access and Benefit Sharing

Target 17: By 2015 each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan

By 2019, Singapore has updated the national targets as part of revision of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) to guide its efforts in biodiversity conservation in the country.

Target 18: By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels.

In the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity and therefore the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011 to 2020 and the Aichi Targets, indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLCs) refer to a specific group of people and communities who embody traditional lifestyles, basically living off the land, who can contribute through their knowledge and practices to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. In Singapore’s context, we do not have such a specifically defined community. We recognise that everyone in Singapore can contribute to the biodiversity conservation efforts in our island-state.

Target 19: By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared and transferred, and applied.

By 2020, Singapore will put in place an updated national database system with biodiversity related information to be used to aid decision making within government and sharing of biodiversity information with the public.

Target 20: By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties.

No target will be tracked as generally Singapore is able to source its funding internally for biodiversity related projects.


Last updated on 08 April 2022

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